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2 Proc. on L. Outer Space 44 (1959)
Space Exploration - The Problems of Today, Tomorrow and in the Future

handle is hein.space/pininsl0002 and id is 52 raw text is: Space Exploration-the Problems of Today, Tomorrow and
in the Future
Andrew G. Haley'
Effective exploration of outer space by human beings must await the develop-
ment of propulsion systems generating millions of pounds of thrust, with exhaust
velocities in the order of one-third to one-half the speed of light. For cruising
capacities and speeds such power plants appear, in nature, to be quite feasible
and probably will be developed. The limiting factors are entirely human, or, more
appropriately stated, are entirely anthropocentric. This is because the limiting
factors center around the ability of the human being to withstand physically the
stress of acceleration and deceleration to and from the luminar cruising speed.
As a long-range problem for solution mankind has every reason to believe that the
problem of physical stress will be conquered. But what of the immediate problems
of the conquest of outer space ?
Is outer space still closed to man and his artifacts, and therefore is it almost
absurd to spend time in pondering upon sovereignty and jurisdiction and evolving
special principles of jurisprudence? Are we still at the outer space stage compara-
ble to the period when man had not invented the wheel or had as yet failed to
domesticate beasts of burden or carrier animals ?
What about man's scientific carrier pigeons-the essential developments of
means of communications? Many radio frequencies are needed for communication
between earth and vehicles in space, and between vehicles in space and earth;
between earth and positions in space; and positions in space and earth; between
two or more positions in space; between two or more space vehicles. Radio
frequencies are essential, not only for all such forms of communication but also
for numerous other purposes such as telemetering, tracking, guidance, radio-
positioning (radar), and so on.
Some few of the answers have already been fairly well ascertained. The students
of the natural and social sciences are well aware of the achievements and impli-
cations of the Sputniks, Mechtas, Vanguards, Pioneers, Discoverers and Explorers,
and of many other breeds of earth-orbiting, and lunar, venusian, martian, and
solar probes and planets.
Despite a certain amount of understandable security secrecy, there is also a
great deal known about the scores of space-penetrating missiles developed and
tested by many nations of the world, including France, Great Britain, U.S.S.R.,
and the United States. During the recent International Geophysical Year, 66
nations cooperated in probing the regions of outer space and in obtaining environ-
mental data of value as far distant as the cislunar area. In retrospect we find that
1 President, International Astronautical Federation; General Counsel, American Rocket
Society; Haley, Wollenberg & Kenehan, 1735 DeSales Street, N.W., Washington 6, D.C.,

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