18 Eur. Foreign Aff. Rev. 47 (2013)
Improving CSDP Planning and Capability Development: Could There Be a Frontex Formula

handle is hein.kluwer/eurofa0018 and id is 51 raw text is: Improving CSDP Planning and Capability
Development: Could there be a 'Frontex
Formula'?
]Daniel FIoTT*
The newly agreed operational rules for Frontex allows the Agency to, among other things, buy or
lease its own equipment for missions and/or to do so in co-ownership with the Member States
and to request national seconded stafffor its operations. The new rules are a major step forward
in further developing Frontex's resources. Yet this progress has not been matched, despite the
Lisbon treaty's protocol on Permanent Structured Cooperation, and in light of the defence
budget cuts being made in many European Union (EU) Member States, when it comes to the
Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). This article asks why, given that each policy
area is ultimately aimed at the defence and security of the EU, are the innovations that have
been agreed for Frontex not equally applicable to CSDP? Why have Member States increased
cooperation under Frontex without equivalent or similar progress under the CSDP? This article
aims to shed light on the differences and similarities of the two policy domains in order to see if a
'Frontex formula' could be applicable to the CSDP
1 INTRODUCTION
In 2011 the Council of the European Union (EU) (the Council) and the
European Parliament formally agreed on a new          set of operational rules' for the
European External Borders Agency (Frontex). The new rules for Frontex include
the Agency's ability to buy or lease its own equipment for missions (such as cars,
vessels and helicopters) and/or to do so in co-ownership with the Member States;
to request national seconded staff for its operations; to assume a co-leading role in
joint operations; to draw up detailed provision plans for its activities and tasks
(such as the composition of the border teams, command and control structures,
reporting mechanisms and operational evaluations); to undertake risk analysis
studies and to regularly assess the Member States' capacities for external border
security; to develop common training and common core curricula for national
border guards; and, to deploy technical assistance projects and liaison officers for
Researcher, Institute of European Studies,Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
Council of the European Union, New Rules on Frontex Adopted - Strengthening the European External
Borders Agency, 15208/11 (Oct. 10,2011).
Fiott, Daniel. 'Improving CSDP Planning and Capability Development: Could there be a 'Frontex
Formula'?'. European Foreign Affairs Review 18, no. 1 (2013): 47-62.
 2013 Kluwer Law International BV, The Netherlands

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