45 Yale J. Int'l L. 133 (2020)
The Nagoya Protocol and the Legal Structure of Global Biogenomic Research

handle is hein.journals/yjil45 and id is 149 raw text is: 






Article



The Nagoya Protocol and the Legal Structure of

Global Biogenomic Research


     Michelle Rourke,t Sam Halabi,tt Gian Luca Burci,l & Rebecca Katzt


I.     IN TROD U CTIO N  .............................................................................................................................  134
      A .   A griculture  and  N utrition  ..................................................................................................  136
      B .   H um an H ealth  and  M edicine ............................................................................................. 138
             1.H IV /A ID S  ....................................................................................................................  13 8
             2 . In flu en za  .......................................................................................................................  14 0
             3 . T ub erculosis  .................................................................................................................  14 1

II.    SEQUENCING THE WORLD: THE NEXT GENERATION OF INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
      COLLABORATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND NUTRITION ......................................................... 143
      A.    The Proliferation of Genetic Sequencing Technologies and Collaborative
            P artnersh ip s ........................................................................................................................  144
      B.    Accessing Genetic Resources: Historical M odels ............................................................. 147
             1. Transfer of Samples between  Collaborators ................................................................ 147
             2. Parachute Acquisition  of Host Country  Samples ........................................................ 148
             3. Annexed Research Sites for the Collection of New Samples ...................................... 149
       C.   The Changing International Legal Landscape for Accessing Genetic Resources ............ 150
             1. Article 15 of the CBD Established Sovereign Rights over Genetic Resources
               and T heir  Exploitation  ................................................................................................. 152
             2. The Nagoya Protocol Clarified Conditions for Researchers' Access to Genetic
               Resources and the Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Study and
               D evelopm ent  ................................................................................................................  154
             3. The Ethics of Large Biogenomic  Projects ................................................................... 164

III.   GLOBAL BIOGENOMIC PROJECTS: CAPACITY BUILDING AND BENEFIT SHARING ...................... 165
      A .   The G lobal V irom e  Project ............................................................................................... 166
             1. Project D escription  and  A im s  ................................................... : .................................. 166
             2. Capacity  Building, Access, and Benefit Sharing ......................................................... 168
             3. Implications for Large-Scale Biological Projects ........................................................ 169

t Dr. Michelle Rourke is a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Synthetic Biology Future Science Fellow at Griffith University Law School in Brisbane, Australia. Her
research focuses on the global regulation of access to genetic resources for the Australian synthetic
biology community. Her Ph.D. examined how international access and benefit-sharing laws under the
United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity and its Nagoya Protocol impact access to physical
virus samples and associated information, including genetic sequence data. Dr. Rourke is a member of
the Global Virome Project's Ethical, Legal and Social Implications Working Group and a non-resident
Affiliate of the Center for Global Health Science and Security at Georgetown University.
tt Sam Halabi is the Manley 0. Hudson Professor of Law at the University of Missouri, a Scholar at the
O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, and the co-chair of the
Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Working Group of the Global Virome Project. He holds a J.D.
from Harvard Law School, an M.Phil. from the University of Oxford (St. Antony's College) and a
B.S., summa cum laude, from Kansas State University.
Gian Luca Burci is the co-chair of the Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Working Group of the Global
Virome Project, an adjunct professor at the Graduate Institute Geneva and the former Legal Counsel of
the World Health Organization. Professor Burci previously served as Legal Officer at the International
Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna and in the United Nations Secretariat in New York.
II Dr. Rebecca Katz is Professor and Director of the Center for Global Health Science and Security at
Georgetown University. She earned her undergraduate degree from Swarthmore College, an M.P.H.
from Yale University, and a Ph.D. from Princeton University.

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