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39 Yale J. Int'l L. 247 (2014)
Toward a Legal Theory on the Responsibility to Protect

handle is hein.journals/yjil39 and id is 277 raw text is: Article
Toward a Legal Theory on the Responsibility to
Protect
Monica Hakimit
I.     IN TRO DUCTION  ............................................................................................................................ 247
II.    R2P'S  PROM ISE  AND  CHALLENGE  ............................................................................................... 251
III.   THE UNFULFILLED PROMISE OF COLLECTIVE DUTIES................................................................ 254
A.     Assigning R2P  to  All Outside States Simultaneously......................................................254
B.     Assigning  R2P  to  International Organizations.................................................................256
IV.    THE  POTENTIAL  OF INDIVIDUAL  DUTIES..................................................................................... 260
A .    T heoretical Foundations................................................................................................... 261
1.    The Seeds for Prescribing R2P-Relevant Conduct ............................................... 261
2.     The  Seeds for Grounding  R2P  Responsibilities.................................................... 263
B.     An  Exem plary  Bundle  of R2P  D uties  .............................................................................. 267
1.    D uty  to  R espect ..................................................................................................... 268
2.     D uty  to  Protect  ...................................................................................................... 270
3.     D uty  N ot to  O bstruct............................................................................................. 274
C .    D uty  to  A ssist...................................................................................................................277
V .    C O N CLU SIO N ................................................................................................................................280
1. INTRODUCTION
Over the past several decades, the central focus of international law has
shifted from protecting only sovereign states to protecting individuals.' Still,
the worst imaginable human rights violations-genocides, ethnic cleansings,
crimes against humanity, and systemic war crimes-occur with alarming fre-
quency.2 And the international response is often slow              or ineffectual.
The most recent development for addressing this problem is the respon-
t     Associate Dean for Academic Programming & Professor of Law, University of Michigan
Law School. Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the May 2013 SHARES Conference at the
University of Amsterdam Law School and the American Society of International Law Human Rights
Workshop at the University of California at Berkeley Law School. I thank the participants in those
events, in addition to Kristen Boon, Jacob Cogan, Karen Knop, Vijay Padmanabhan, Beth Van Schaack,
and Ingrid Wuerth for helpful comments. I also thank Johanna Dennehy for exceptional research assis-
tance.
1.    See, e.g., RUTI G. TEITEL, HUMANITY'S LAW 9, 37 (2011); W. Michael Reisman, Sover-
eignty and Human Rights in Contemporary International Law, 84 AM. J. INT'L L. 866, 872 (1990).
2.    For evidence that these violations are the worst of the worst, see the Rome Statute of the
International Criminal Court, art. 4, opened for signature July 17, 1998, 2187 U.N.T.S. 3; and U.N. Sec-
retary-General, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect: Rep. of the Secretary-General,   10(b), U.N.
Doc. A/63/677 (Jan. 12, 2009).

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