112 W. Va. L. Rev. 307 (2009-2010)
Different Shades of Bias: Skin Tone, Implicit Racial Bias, and Judgments of Ambiguous Evidence

handle is hein.journals/wvb112 and id is 307 raw text is: DIFFERENT SHADES OF BIAS:
SKIN TONE, IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS, AND
JUDGMENTS OF AMBIGUOUS EVIDENCE
Justin D. Levinson* & Danielle Young~
I.      IN TROD UCTION   .................................................................................... 308
II.     SCHOLARSHIP ON IMPLICIT BIAS AND RACE IN LEGAL DECISION-
M A K IN G   ............................................................................................... 3 1 1
A .     Legal Scholarship  ................................................................... 3 11
1.      Non-Empirical Work on Implicit Bias in Society ..... 312
2.      Non-Empirical Work on Implicit Bias in the Legal
S y stem   ................................................................................... 3 15
3.      Empirical Legal Scholarship   ..................................... 319
B.      Mock-Jury Research on Racial Bias ...................................... 323
III.    ACTIVATING POWERFUL RACIAL STEREOTYPES ................................. 326
A.      Racial Stereotypes are Primed Easily .................................... 327
B.      Primed Racial Stereotypes Affect Decision-Making ............... 329
IV.     TESTING FOR BIAS -     THE EMPIRICAL STUDY .................................... 331
A .     M  ethods  .................................................................................. 33 1
B.      Limitations of Study and Future Directions ........................... 334
C.      Demographics of Study Participants ...................................... 335
D.      Results     Skin Tone and Racially Biased Judgments ............ 336
1.      Skin    Tone    Affects   Judgments     of   Ambiguous
E v iden ce  ................................................................................. 33 7
2.      Skin Tone Affects Judgments of How Guilty Is the
D efendant  ........................................... .................................. 337
3.      Evidence Judgments Predict Guilty Verdicts ............ 337
4.      Evidence    Judgments    Unrelated   to  Explicit Racial
Preferences  ............................................................................. 33 8
5.      Stimuli Recall, Priming, and IAT Results ................. 338
E.      Summary of Results and Implications .................................... 338
Copyright  2010 by Justin D. Levinson and Danielle Young
Associate Professor of Law and Director, Culture and Jury Project, William S. Richardson
School of Law, University of Hawai'i at Manoa. The authors would like to thank Susan Serrano.
Kapua Sproat, Galit Levinson, and Dina Shek for their input on previous drafts. Sara Ayabe
contributed outstanding research assistance. Dean Aviam Soifer provided generous summer re-
search support to the first author. The authors would also like to thank Dr. Huajian Cai for adapt-
ing the empirical study for computerized testing.
Department of Psychology. University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

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