42 W. St. L. Rev. 1 (2014-2015)
The Long Shadow: Decreasing Barriers to Employment, Housing, and Civic Participation for People with Criminal Records will Improve Public Safety and Strengthen the Economy

handle is hein.journals/wsulr42 and id is 5 raw text is: The Long Shadow: Decreasing Barriers to
Employment, Housing, and Civic Participation for
People with Criminal Records Will Improve Public
Safety and Strengthen the Economy
Steven D. Bell*
INTRODUCTION  .................................................................  2
I. CONSEQUENCES OF A CRIMINAL CONVICTION .........................           3
A .  Direct Consequences  ...........................................     3
1.  Incarceration  ...............................................   3
2.  Probation  and  Parole  .......................................   4
3.  Fines  and  Restitution  .......................................  5
4.  R egistration  ................................................   5
5.  R ecidivism   ................................................    5
6. A Note about California's Realignment ......................       6
B.  Collateral Consequences  ........................................     7
1.  D isenfranchisem ent .........................................   8
2.  Other  Civil Restrictions  ....................................   9
3.  E m ploym ent  ...............................................   10
4.  H ousing  ...................................................      11
II.  W ORSENING  CONDITIONS...............................................  11
A .  Getting  Tough  on  Crim e ........................................  11
B.  Technological Advances  ........................................     13
C. Increased Use of Background Checks ...........................        13
III. BAN THE Box MOVEMENT ............................................ 16
A .  D isenfranchisem ent .............................................  17
B .  E m ploym ent  ...................................................  18
1.  M innesota  .................................................   18
2.  M assachusetts  ..............................................   19
3.  C alifornia  ..................................................  19
4.  San  Francisco  ..............................................  20
5.  N ational  Em ployers  ........................................  21
6.  Federal  Law suits  ...........................................  21
IV. PROPOSAL ............................................................... 22
V. CONCLUSION ........................................................... 24
* J.D. Candidate, May 2015, Western State College of Law. I would like to express my gratitude to
Western State for welcoming this formerly incarcerated person into its program and my appreciation to
Professor Elizabeth Jones, Director of the Criminal Law Practice Center, and Professor Dylan Malagrinb
for their continuing guidance, encouragement, and inspiration. Lastly, my profound thanks to my wife,
Sue, and to all my family and friends for their love, support, and patience through the years, especially
today as I pursue my passion.

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