22 Women's J. 1 (1891)

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VOL. XXII,                                                   ]


The Woman's Journal.
  At,' ,y New al IItr, .pb llIe d every  Saturday
  0,    1t     ,',d 10 tie iterests of W 01n1111-
do         loat. Induotrial legal and political
j o | 1 1 r  e t li = - t h ) a d  r
l.,1ality, a  esil eciallyto her right of Sullrag .
                ]1DITOn8 :
       LUCY STON'.
          |.BBLACKW ELL,
            AgsocivrI EoIron:
        I OCCASIONAl•owa. T Olts:
   liAmty A. Ll V'l5l10O[tlt,
   BIl .II]s T. CUJTI LR,
   E IIAI~.TI~il SiAT imiI'll hP.1 l WARDt,
      IAiU'I'NAkM JACOII, 11. D.,
   y,%AN'cl4  E.  II.TAItI)
      AI F. IAT'MAN,
    Il, M  .Y IIIIIA -IK,.
    alisa MAltY I', IlKiti'Y,
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        llY I t ZitK A  I rUTT itwonlrIt.
        Follow ty better heart,
        Follow thy better will
        And so thy better self
        II thy best self fulitI-
            T'o thy best self be true.
        To hold an honest hand,
          TO OWIn t  lionest 111111
        To feel an hlioest heart,
          Is lore thitli wealth or faite-
            To thy best self be true.
        As thou to others art
          ]ii lelp and charity,
        So Tlino ud Circunistance
          One day will be to thee-
             To tthy best self be true.
        Wttate'er the world iny say,
          ilowever Pride matly boast,
        That ting Is best for tiee
          That heletl others most-
             To thy best self be true.
        So shall thy Influence bless,
      a   And when thy years are inat,
        So shall thy better self
          Thy angel betit last-
             To thy best self be true.
                            -Golcn Rule.

    For six years many of the most re-
 spected citizens of New York City have
 eought In vain to have women employed
 as matrons in the police-stations, to take
 charge of the hundreds of women and
 girls of all ages and conditions who find
 shelter every night as prisoners or tem-
 porary lodgers in the station-houses. Some
 are there from accident, poverty, or mis-
 fortune; others from Intemperance, vice,
 and crime. These helpless women and
 girls are literally herded together, with
 nobody but male policemen and door-keep-
 ers In charge of them. The system is an
 outrage on decency, and a blot on civil-
 Ization. The results developed have been
 in some cases absolutely appalling.

    The New York World, the leading Dem-
  ocratic newspaper, representing the domi-
  nant party in city politics, has led a crusade
  egainst this iniquity. It has been heartily
  suppo ted in the effort by every respectable
  New York daily paper, irrespective of
  party. The Legislature has repeatedly
  signified its desire to pass a mandatory
  act for the employment of police matrons.
  But Governor Hill announced his de-
  termination to veto such a bill, and thus
  compelled the insertion of permissory
  clauses iu the laws of 1886 and 1888. The
  Grand Jury, too, has officially advocated
  the employment of matrons, and in a re-
  port just made to the Court of General
  Sessions demands of the coming Legis-
  lature that the law shall be made manda-
  tory, adding that it Is clearly the spirit
  of each law that its provisions should be
  carried into effect.

    But the Police Commissioners, in the
  face of all this, 'refuse to make an ap-
  propriation. They declare themselves un-
  alterably opposed to the employment of
  matrons, and are unanimously of opinion
  that matrons cannot be made desirable
  aids in performing the duties of the police
  department.• They are unwilling even to
  have the experiment tried, notwithtand.
  lag the favorable experience and testi.
  mony of Portland, Chicekgo, Boston an
  other cities, In this shameful position
  they present an object-lesson as to th
  need of woman suffrage as a means ol

enforcing a decent respect for the rights
and interests of women.

   Mrs. Annie Baxter, affectionately called
 Col. Baxer, was elected County Clerk
 by a large majority not long ago In Jasper
 County, Missouri. She had served as
 deputy clerk for several years, had per-
 formed the duties well, and was very popu.
 lar. The defeated candidate Is contesting
 Mrs. Baxter's election on the ground that
 a woman Is not eligible. The Missouri
 papers denounce his conduct In strong
 terms. The St. Louis 1Republic says:
   There is certainly nothing In his claim
 that the statute fixing the qualifcations of
 county clerks uses the masculine pronoun
 he' throughout, for it is a well-known
 rule of grammar that the masculine pro-
 noun i. made to do duty for persons both
 of the male and female sex. And, as the
 Brunswicker points out, the Missouri stat-
 utes use the pronoun 'he' in relation to the
 nouns 'intestate' and 'teacher,' whereas
 everybody knows that women are allowed
 to have wills of their own after death as
 well as during life; and without women
 teachers the young Idea would not learn
 to shoot with any accuracy at all. The
 argument that because only men are ati-
 lowed to vote in Missouri, none but men
 are competent to hold office, Is weak and
 illogical. If men, as the lords of creation,
 have the exclusive right to confer, they
 certainly have the right to confer it upon
 whom they pleae, provided there Is no ex
 press legal prohibition. The Jasper Coun-
 ty men voted Col. Baxter into the county
 clerkship. Emulating the example of the
 Hungarians who promised to die for their
 'King,' Maria Theresa, they should see to
 It that her right is not overthrown.

  Editors Wloman's Journal:
    In the town of Hyde Park, Mass., stands
  an unpretentious white cottage, chiefly
  peaks and gables, half hidden in summer
  with vineg, but outwardly unmarked by
  anything to distinguish it as the home of
  a woman of national fame, except, per-
  haps, a flag-pole over one of the balconies,
  where, on all patriotic days when Mrs.
  Mary H. Hunt i at home, the fl-ig of her
  country, floating without, testifies of the
  patriotism within.
    But inside this little white house, called
  Hope Cottage from Mrs. Hunt's famous
  epigram The Star of Hope of the Tem-
  perance Reform stands over the School-
  house, are many features which distin-
  guish it from the ordinary private dwell-
  Ing. In place of costly furnishings and
  bric-h-brac are books and papers, papers
  and books everywhere. Even the dining-
  room is invaded, and from one corner go
  out the letters, plans and supplies of liter-
  ature to local workers In every part of the
  United States, as well as In foreign lands.
  In Mrs. Hunt'a study every inch of wall
  space is lined with books, constituting a
  well-equipped reference library on the spe-
  cial science she is engrafting upon the
  school system of the country.
    The modest parlor takes for its share of
  the department paraphernalia the trophies
  of unique and remarkable campaigns.
  Here Is the pen with which President
  Cleveland signed the National Temperance
  Education Bill; a Japanese and a Hawaiian
  edition'of the first primary text-book ever
  published;*and, among other mementoes,
  gifts from devoted women in New York
  and Pennsylvania in token of their thank-
  fulness over the passage of the temper-
  ance education laws in tho'e great States.
    A recent addition to the list of souvenirs
  is a collection that has just come all the
  way from India. It consists of a complete
  opium smoking outfit, which has been used
  thousands of times in the 'government
  licensed shops of India. There is the pipe
  with its small aperture for receiving the
  opium, the saucer in which the drug is
  prepared, the lamp, and the needle on
- which the small bit of gummy mixture is
I  taken up, held in the flame, and then ap
- plied to the pipe. There Is a chillium,
- brick-colored clay pipe, in which ganja
t mixed with tobacco, is smoked, and there
are little boxes containing specimens o
   raw opium and tnadak, and the four pro
   ducts of the demoralizing Indian hemp
e  ganja, bhang, caras and antum. In on
- box is a seal bearing the English govern
- ment stamp, sanctioning the sale of these
f  soul and body.destroying narcotics to th
n  poor deluded natives of India.
e    Mr. Maurice Gregory, associate edito
e  of The Banner of Asia and The Bomba
o uardian, sends these specimens to Mrs
   SHunt, and wrtes that interest is beint
 -aroused on the subject of teaching th
 children in the schools the nature an
 Seffect of these substances. The mission
 earies find the greatest obstacle to thel
 fwork In the moral, mental and physics

degradation caused by the use of the
various narcotics whose sale the govern-
ment is pushing for the sake of revenue.
They are therefore beginning to see In
this education a hope of preventing the
young from being enticed into the forma-


tion of narcotic habits. Text-books on
the topic are already being prepared.
   Thus the Influences going out from that
 little white cottage In Hyde Park are
 reaching not only to thousands of schools
 and tens of thousands of children in the
 United States, but are extending to dis-
 tant lands, where they may yet be potent
 In saving thousands more from the blight
 of narcotism-the blight that Is a greater
 menace to human progress to-day than
 plague, pestilence, and war combined.
                    EMS3A L. BENEDICT.

   Hackneyed as it mu~t be admitted thi
 subject is, the Interest Ittacllng to it Is nol
 yet on the wane; Indeed has not yet waxed
 to its climax. Espec llUy-is thehighci
 education of women a still unsolved prob
 lem in many countries; and one which
 every country is stating in its own way
 and attempting to solve by its aeceptec
 formulas of life.
   At the present moment, the greates
 danger which menaces the education o:
 women in our own country is the populai
 misconception of existing opportunitie
 for their education. It is the fashion tc
 say: In the United States the question I
 solved.   Here, any girl 9tho is deter
 mined to obtain an education can do so.'
 At first view, these assertions seem wholly
 true. The latest statistics show that of al
 the students registered In our public higI
 schools, 59.1 per cent. are girls, and that
 of the whole number studying in all sc
 ondary schools, both public and private
 52.4 per cent. are girls; but the same au
 thority shows that, of the whole numbe
 of students pursuing superior education I
 colleges and universities, only 29.3 pe
 cent. are young women. Where shall on
 look for the explanation of the fact that
 while 2.4 per cent. more girls than boy
 are prepared in secondary schools for en
 tering college, hardly more than one-thin
 as many young women as young men ac
 tually go to college?
    The explanation of this is found In tw
  current opinions: first, that education is
  means to an end, i. e., it is a preparatlo
  for life; and second, thatthe life for whlc
  women are destined demands less disc
  pline and less culture than the life fe
  which men are destined.
    Frankly stated, the greatest difficulty t
  overcome in the education of girls is ti
  absence of incentive. That there no longt
  remains any insurmountable obstacle I
  the way of the ambitious and resolut
  girl who is determined to acquire an cdc
  cation, is quite true. But a community I
  which only the resolute and the ambitiou
  the born geniuses, should be educate'
  would boast a low averige of culture. C
  the young men who constitute 70.7 p
  cent. of all the students in American cc
  leges and universities, no one will asse
  that all or any considerable portion a
  geniuses. No large number of them a
  naturally resolute and ambitious, and d
  termined on acquiring an education at am
  sacrifice. Large numbers are in collep
* because the training to be obtained the
  is regarded as an indispensable condith
* of the best success in the work of the
maturity; or, at least, as greatly incres
ing the probabilities of their success
. such work. The greater number of thoe
r not included in this class are in collep
11 because college training and college om

Digitized from Best Copy Available



No. 1.

  ture are suited to their station in life, and
  are really demanded by It.
    To make it as easy for young women to
  go to college as it now is for young men
  to go, involves the modification of the cur-
  rent expectations of the family and of
  society, to which young women uncon-
  sciously conform their views and their
  plans. Consider for a moment a family of
  the American professional or commercial
  class; a family of the class average In
  means, intelligence, and social position; a
  Sunday-school and church going family;
  a newspaper and magazine-reading family;
  a family that listens to the best lectures
  and concerts that come within Its reach.
  The difference in the amounts of general
  information possessed by the boys and
  girls of this average, respectable family is
  amazing. The boys read the political col-
  umns of the newspaper, while the girls
  read only the columns devoted to society
  mention, and the'letters on dress and cos-
  metics. The boys have hung about the
  shop, or the factory, or the court-room,
  and have picked up a considerable quan-
  tity of really valuable knowledge, while
  the girls have lounged In the parlor where
  mamma was receiving calls, or have gone
  shopping with her. The boys have been
  told from Infancy that they would be
  helped to the means of a good education,
  and that then they mn-;t depend upon
  themselves; and that their ability to de-
  pend upon themselves would correspond
  with their physical strength, their energy,
  intelligence, and education.
t ' Little may have been said directly to the
t  girls about tie matter, but they have a
r  general Impression that If they are pretty,
1  have good taste about their clothes, are
   amiable and gentle-mannered, they will
   be well married tit an early age, and
   that then all will be well. It is quite
   frequently true that the girls of this fain-
i fly are really better scholars than the boys;
t  that they are more studious and more doe-
Ile. But not studying toward any definite
r  end, or with any large purpose, the lessons
- learied stand in tlmelfinlndseach by itself,
   and are not mixed or blended into culture,
   or, what is better than culture, into mental
     It often happens that the same parents
t who urge their boys on by every induce-
r  ment to prepare for college and to go to
r college, use as much endeavor to dissuade
s  their daughters from the higher culture as
0  to urge their sons to it. The same fam-
s  ily that really compels its sons to go to
r- college, commands its daughters to stay at
,, home, or, at best, lets them go.
y    It cannot be properly said that girls have
1 an equal chance with boys for education,
h  especially for the higher education, until
t, society regards a young woman who poses
   as a mere family and society ornament
, with the same contempt with which it now
   regards the young man who values him-
r  self solely for his decorative qualities
m  Few parents are yet beyond that vulgar
r  estimate of values which is expressed i
e   the current phrase: Oh il I've no desi
t, that my daughter should have a broad edu
7s  cation; she will never have to do anything
- for a living, and she does not need a col
d lege education. It Is this habit of view
C- lg an education solely as a means of se
    curing a livelihood which Is reversing the
o   natural relations of rich and poor in thie
a   country, and is making the latter often in
m   trinsically superior to the former in attain
h   ment, in actual power, and in capacity fo
I-  culture. Certainly, the state of soclet3
or  which. deprecates education in the daugh
    ters of the well-to-do is the natural succes
to  sor of that social state which deprecatei
le  learning In the sons of the nobility, be
er  cause, forsooth, reading and  writini
in  were but clerical accomplishments, un
te  suited to the valiant. The moment tha
u-  one ceases to value educationprimarlly fo
in  what it will help one to do, and begins t
s,  value it primarily because of what it wil
d,  enable one to be, that moment one will b
Df  able to regard education as as desirable
er  nay, as as essential for girls as for boys
1- for women as for men.
rt    Therefore, those who would advance t
re  sounder education of girls and the highe
re  education of women must, In all ways
le- work to cultivate the rights, and the recog
ny  nition of the rights, of individualism; an
ge  also to cultivate in girls a sense of respoI
re  sibility for the use of their abilities, and
on  confirm In the community the growin
eir conviction that influential relatives an
.s- wealth do not, any more thsfn sex alon
in relieve women from the duty of aetli
se service in some capacity, as members
ge  society.        MAY WRIGUT SEWALL.
ul-   Indianapolis, lad.

   Dit. MARtY SHlEtwoo, of Baltimore,
 Md., has been admitted to post-graduate
 work at the Johns Hopkins University.
   ELIZAIIETII SARGENT, M1. D., daughter
 of our former Minister to Berlin, is an
 oculist of exceptional skill. She lives in
   Miss BELLE PImtso, of New Albany,
 Ind., a compositor on the New Albany
 Ledger, has been elected vice-president for
 the third congressional district of the In-
 diana federation of trades and labor.
   MIss KING, the Democratic candidate
 for superintendent of schools in Hughes
 County, S. D., who was counted out by
 tie canvassing board, lias secured an
 order from the district Judge giving her
 the office to which she was elected.
   EIIZAnETII POWIL BOND, who has so
 ably filled the position of matron at
 Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, for
 the past few years, Is now dean of time col-
 lege. The change shows the high appre-
 cliation in which she Is held, and broadens
 her opportunity for good work.
  Taunton, Mass., latelya graduate at Zurich,
  Is resident pathologist at the State Ifospi-
  tal for the Insane at Norristown, Penn. In
  this hospital the women patients are en-
  tirely under the charge of women, from
  the head physician down to the attendants.
    Miss ELEANOR LORD, fellow in history
  at Bryn Mawr In 1889-00, and instructor
  in history at Smith College, presented a
  paper on The Progress of International
  Arbitration, at one of the recent meet-
  ings of the American Academy of Political
  and Social Science.
    MIms. PROCTOR, wife of the late astron-
  omer, Richard A. Proctor, proposes to
  perpetuate her husband's name by build-
  ing an observatory on Mission Heights, at
  San Diego, Cal. The building with the
  telescope will cost about $25,000, and the
  bulk of this. ,sum-Mrs. Proctor_..hopes. to
  raise by lecturing.
    FitAU SOPHIE SALVANIUS, an able Ger-
  man woman of letters, has Issued an ap-
  peal to her countrywomen to reform those
  national modes of education which con-
  sider girls simply as future housekeepers.
  Their present training, she says, leaves
  German women without individuality, and
3 with pitifully low ideals of life.
    MRs. FARROW, of Boston, Lincolnshire,
t Enghnd, Is a Poor Law Guardian, and
   wife of a County Councillor. She is also
   a woman with a remarkable capacity for
   business. Knowing nothing of printing,
   she nevertheless bought all the machinery
required for doing the printing called for
t  by the increasing needs of her husband's
  mustard factory, and within one month
  had mastered the whole business of print-
  ing the gay-colored labels and case-covers,
r  the bill-heads and notices, etc., for the
a  entire concern.
e    MRS. ELLEN S. RICHARDS, Professor of
. Chemistry in the Massachusetts Institute
g  of Technology, advises the addition of a
- chair of Domestic Economy to women's
- colleges: chemistry, physics, physiology,
. biology, and especially bacteriology, be-
e Ing made the stepping-stones to sanitary
s  science. Collegiate alumnm, Mrs. Rich-
. aids thinks, could make themselves mls-
. sionarles of a higher civilization by form-
r Ing home science clubs wherever half a
y  dozen women show the patience and cour-
I- age needed to study the local conditions
. affecting home life.  An outline of the
d  plan has already been given in these
. columns.
g    MRS. CLARA C. LOCKE, of Linwood,
- Delaware.County, has received the first
t captain's license ever granted in Pennsyl-
r  vania to a woman. There was a flutter of
o  excitement in the office of the United
11  States Inspector of Steam Vessels when
e Mrs. Locke presented herself for examina-
e, tion. Dr. Purviance produced his appara-
s, tu for testing color-blindness, and dis-
    covered that the nautical aspirant before
ie him could diotinguish even more delicate
r differences in shades of color than himself.
s, Then Captain Thompson began the shorter
g- catechism of navigation intelligence, as to
d   when to blow whistles, sound bells, strike
n- gongs', alow lights to avoid collisions,
to  take soundings, etc. The captain declared
g   that he never examined a man who an-
d swered his questions so correctly.  He
e, readily granted the license. Mrs. Locke's
ie husband is a civil engineer employed by
af the government, and has charge of the
    Improvements in the Delaware-River and
    Bay. He also holds a master's license.

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