About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

47 Mitchell Hamline L. Rev. 1 (2020-2021)

handle is hein.journals/wmitch47 and id is 1 raw text is: FROM COMMON LAW TO AFFIRMATIVE CONSENT:
REFORMING MINNESOTA'S CRIMINAL
SEXUAL CONDUCT LAWS
Nate Summerst
I.     IN T RO D U CT IO N ...............................................................................1
A .     The  Problem  .................................................................................3
B .     O utlin e  ....................................................................................... 4
II.    A HISTORY OF PAST REFORMS OF MINNESOTA CRIMINAL
SEXUAL CONDUCT LAWS ..........................................................................5
A.      First Rape Statutes and Early Reforms ....................................5
B. Modern CSC Statutory Scheme .................................................10
1. Consent Definition .....................................................................11
2.   CS  C Fram  ew ork  .........................................................................12
3. Physically Helpless ......................................................................14
III.   A FFIRM  ATIVE  CONSENT................................................................16
A.      DefiningAfirmative Consent.....................................................17
1.      Yes  M eans  Yes....................................................................17
B.     Affirmative Consent in Action....................................................19
IV.    ARGUMENTS AGAINST AFFIRMATIVE CONSENT AND THEIR
COUNTERARGUM        ENTS .......................................................................... 21
A.     Affirmative Consent Shifts the Burden ofProof....................22
B.     Affirmative Consent Ruins Sexual Intimacy...........................22
C      Affirmative Consent Will Cause False Rape Claims ..................24
D. Affirmative Consent Does Not Solve the Voluntarily Intoxication
P roblem  ............................................................................................ 25
V .     PROPOSED    AM  ENDMENTS      ............................................................26
VI. MODEL LANGUAGE .......................................................................27
I.   INTRODUCTION
The time to reform Minnesota's criminal sexual conduct (CSC)
laws is now.' Conceptions of sex, rape, and consent have evolved from
paternalistic ideals and given way to modern reforms and an ever-expanding
understanding of sexual relationships. One need only watch cringeworthy
interactions of sex symbols of earlier decades to understand how drastic this
shift has been. For example, take what was an entirely acceptable scene in
the PG-rated, 1964 film Goldfinger. James Bond corners his female co-
4 Nate Summers is a recent graduate of the University of St. Thomas School of Law and
current law clerk for the Honorable Judge Diane Bratvold. The opinions expressed here are
his own, with considerable thanks to Professor Mark Osler of St. Thomas and Christina
Warren and James Hanneman of the Hennepin County Attorney's Office, for their
thoughtful guidance in composing this article and ceaseless service to the community.
'See MINN. STAT. SS 609.341-.3451 (2019).
' GOLDFINGER (EON Productions 1964).

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 3,000 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most