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29 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev. 845 (2002-2003)
The Race Effect on Wrongful Convictions

handle is hein.journals/wmitch29 and id is 855 raw text is: THE RACE EFFECT ON WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS
Arthur L. Rizer III
I.  INTRODUCTIO        N  ................................................................... 846
II. HISTORICAL VIEW AND EFFEcTS OF RACE IN THE CRIMINAL
JUSTICE    SYSTEM    ................................................................... 847
A.     The Scottsboro Effect ....................................................... 848
B.     The McCleskey Effect .................................................... 851
C.     The Impact of McCleskey .............................................. 852
III. EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY AND CROSS-RACIAL
IDENTIFICATIO      N  .................................................................. 853
A.     Wrongful Convictions Due to Faulty Eyewitness Testimony.853
B.    Faulty Eyewitness Testimony in Cross-Racial Identification
Increases Wrongful Convictions Among Minorities ............ 854
C.    Solutions and Safeguards ............................................... 855
IV. IT IS BETTER TO BE RICH AND GUILTY THAN POOR,
INNOCENT, AND A MINORITY ................................................ 856
A.     Wrongful Convictions and the Impoverished in America .... 857
B.     Minorities and Poverty in America .................................. 858
C.    Prisons in America ......................................................... 859
D.     Suggestions and Solutions .............................................. 860
V. INSTITUTIONALIZED RACISM THAT IMPACTS MINORITIES
BEING WRONGFULLY CONVICTED ........................................ 860
A.     Congress / Legislature .................................................... 860
B .    The  Prosecutor .............................................................. 861
C.     The Court/ judges ........................................................ 864
D .    TheJury    ....................................................................... 864
V I.   C O N CLU  SIO N  ....................................................................... 866

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