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55 J. Offender Rehab. 1 (2016)

handle is hein.journals/wjor55 and id is 1 raw text is: 

2016, VOL. 55, NO. 1, 1-20                                         Routledge
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2015.1107001                    Taylor& Francis Group

Prison nurseries: Experiences of incarcerated women
during pregnancy
Stephanie  Fritz and Kevin Whiteacre
Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

   ABSTRACT                                                  KEYWORDS
   The rate of incarceration for women has risen dramatically in the  Correctional programming;
   past three decades. Many incarcerated women are pregnant  female offenders;
   upon incarceration and give birth in prison. Prison nurseries  incarcerated mothers;
   allow women to remain with their newborn babies within the offender rehabilitation;
   prison for a specified span of time. Evidence suggests such qualitative research; prison
   programs increase mother-child attachment, improve parenting  nursery
   efficacy, and reduce participant recidivism. Through interviews
   with 27 formerly incarcerated women who gave birth while in
   prison, the present study compares the birth experiences of
   women  participating in a prison nursery program and a group of
   women  giving birth prior to implementation of the program.


The   growth  in  women's   incarceration   rates in the  United   States is well
documented (Carson, 2014; Chesney-Lind, 2002; Pollock, 2013; The
Sentencing  Project, 2012).  Though   women   still comprise  a small percentage
(about  7%)  of the  total prison population,  their incarceration rate has been
growing   faster than men's   in recent decades  (Carson,  2014;  Chesney-Lind,
2002;  Pollock, 2013).  Between   1990  and  2001, the  number   of incarcerated
women increased by 114% compared to 80% for men (Pollock, 2013).
Between   2003  and  2012,  the  average  annual  growth  for  women prisoners
was  1.2%   compared   to  0.7%  for  men,  and  female  prisoners  sentenced  to
more   than  a year  in state or federal  prison  grew  by  almost  3%         between
2012  and  2013, while  male prisoners  increased  0.2%      (Carson, 2014).
   The number   of parents incarcerated in state and federal prisons increased by
79%   between   1991 and  mid-year  2007  (Glaze  & Maruschak,   2008).  In 2004,
approximately   71%   of mothers   in prison  were  the sole primary   caregivers
for their minor  children, compared   to 26%   of incarcerated  fathers (Glaze  &
Maruschak,   2008).  Between   1991  and  2007, the number of children with a
mother   in prison also increased  131%   (Glaze  &  Maruschak,   2008). Of  the
estimated  74 million children  in the U.S. resident population who  were  under
age  18 on July  1, 2007, 2.3%  had  a parent  in prison. Black children  (6.7%)

CONTACT Stephanie Black Fritz 0 fritzs@uindy.edu (D Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, University
of Indianapolis, 1400 E. Hanna Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46227, USA.
0 2016 Taylor & Francis

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