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51 J. Offender Rehab. 1 (2012)

handle is hein.journals/wjor51 and id is 1 raw text is: 

Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 51:1-8, 2012       *i  Routledge
Copyright 0 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC                    TlFnGroup
ISSN: 1050-9674 print/1540-8558 online
DOI: 10.1080/10509674.2012.633016

     Introduction to the Special Double Issue:
          Brief   Addiction Interventions and
       Assessment Tools for Criminal Justice

Following decades of continuing growth of prison and jail populations in the
United States, 2.3 million people (one in every 133 adults) were incarcerated
in 2006 (Sabol, Minton, & Harrison, 2008), representing a rise of 33% from
1996. Of  these inmates, 85% were  substance involved, including alcohol
(57%)  and illicit drugs (76%). Almost two thirds (65%) met medical criteria
for alcohol or other drug use disorders and one third (33%) were diagnosed
with a mental illness; almost a quarter (24%) had co-occurring drug use and
mental disorders (CASA, 2010). Women reported only slightly higher rates of
drug problems  than men (66%  vs. 64%), but were almost twice as likely to
have  combined  drug and mental health disorders (41% vs. 22%). Yet only
11%  of inmates received any form of professional drug treatment in 2006,
and  comprehensive  evidence-based treatment regimens  are rare in these
settings. Because incarceration costs to society average $25,144 per inmate
annually and  more than half (52%) of substance-involved inmates report
multiple incarcerations (compared to 31% for others), even marginal expan-
sion and improvements  to treatment services in correctional settings could
yield significant public health, safety, and cost benefits.
     The articles presented in this special double issue of the Journal of
Offender  Rehabilitation are intended  to help  facilitate planning and
implementation  of treatment innovations, especially for criminal justice (CJ)
populations. They build on a previous series of studies published in The
Prison Journal (Simpson, Wexler, & Inciardi, 1999) that showed structured
addiction treatment programs for offenders are effective, particularly when
linked with continuing care during the community reentry phase (Knight,
Simpson,  & Hiller, 1999; Martin, Butzin, Saum, & Inciardi, 1999; Pearson &
Lipton, 1999; Wexler, Melnick, Lowe, & Peters, 1999). These programs were
found  to be most cost effective when used with higher-severity drug-using
offenders (Griffith, Hiller, Knight, & Simpson, 1999), and early dropouts from
treatment elevate their inefficiency and costs. Dropout risks were associated
with psychosocial dysfunction, criminal orientation, and low treatment readi-
ness (Hiller, Knight, & Simpson, 1999), but there are specialized cognitive
interventions shown to be effective in therapeutically engaging these high-risk
admissions to CJ systems (Blankenship, Dansereau, & Simpson, 1999).

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