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28 J. Offender Rehab. 1 (1998-1999)

handle is hein.journals/wjor28 and id is 1 raw text is: 

Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Vot 28 (1/2), 1998. Pp. 1-28.
@ 1998 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All /ights reserved.

Prevention of Juvenile Violence:

A   Critical Review

of  Current Scientific Strategies

Florida State University

ABSTRACT The theme of this paper is the prevention   of juvenile violence
through pro-active responses based on modern  biological and neurological
knowledge,  rather than after-the-fact legal responses based on a doctrine of
free will, moral responsibility, and revenge and punishment. Prevention pro-
grams are of two types: interdisciplinary and social-developmental. Interdisci-
plinary approaches are based on  biology, psychology, sociology, law, and
urban planning and  focus on the 5-7% of the delinquent cohort population
who  go on to serious violent careers and the 3-5% of the urban areas with high
crime rates. Individual differences are as crucial as environmental differences,
since the emerging model is one of individuals interacting with the environ-
ment. Hence, urban planning and the new ecology are to be utilized in crime
prevention. The social-developmental model is based on the manipulation of
such social variables as family, school, neighborhood, and peer groups. How-
ever, the research indicates that such interventions are effective for no more
than 2-3 years and that the 5% headed for serious offenses are not identified by
concentrating solely on environmental variables. Finally, the judicial-legal
approach to violence is discussed, with a focus on Supreme Court decisions in
which, because of a 5-4 split, one justice determines major policy issues. On
the basis of very conservative appointments, the Supieme Court has supported
the death penalty. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Docwnent
Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: geiinfo@htaworthpressinc.com]

KEYWORDS Juvenile justice, juvenile   delinquency, crime prevention, psy-
chobiology of aggression

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