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31 Wis. J. L. Gender, & Soc'y 29 (2016)
Hormone Check: Critique of Olympic Rules on Sex and Gender

handle is hein.journals/wiswo31 and id is 33 raw text is: 








    HORMONE CHECK: CRITIQUE OF OLYMPIC RULES ON SEX AND
                                 GENDER

                               Erin Buzuvis.

INTRO DUCTIO N  ............................................................................................... . .  29
I. WHO Is FEMALE IN OLYMPIC AND INTERNATIONAL SPORT? A BRIEF HISTORICAL
       O VERVIEW .......................................................................................... . .  3 1
       A. A History  of Sex Verification Testing .............................................  31
       B. The Stockholm Consensus: IOC's First Transgender Policy ........... 34
II. IOC's TURN TOWARD HORMONE-BASED ELIGIBILITY ........................................... 36
       A. Hyperandrogenism Rule for Intersex Athletes ............................. 36
       B. New Hormone-Based Guidelines for Transgender Athletes ...... 38
Ill. CHALLENGING THE HYPERANDROGENISM RULE: CHAND V. IAAF .......................... 39
       A. CAS Ruling in  Chand  v. IAAF ..........................................................  39
       B. CAS Endorses Testosterone-Based Boundaries In Women's
           Spo rts ..................................................................................... . .   4 0
       D. CAS Endorses Suspicion-Based Testing ......................................... 42
       E. CAS Mythologizes the Level Playing Field ........................ 43
IV. MOVING FORWARD: RECONCILING OBJECTIONS TO HYPERANDROGENISM RULE
       WITH IOC's NEW HORMONE-BASED RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TRANSGENDER
       W O M EN  ............................................................................................ . .  4 5
       A. Advantages and Disadvantages of a Uniform Hormone Rule ........... 45
       B. An End to Gender Categories? .....................................................  48
       C. A Uniform Gender Identity Rule  ..................................................  49
       D. A Hybrid Approach ........................................................................ 53
C O N CLUSIO N  ................................................................................................... . .  5 5


                               INTRODUCTION

     For good and for bad, most sports, including all Olympic sports, are
divided into two categories, men's and women's. In some ways, this division
makes good sense. It ensures that female athletes have opportunities to
compete which might not exist if competitive sports were open on a gender-
blind basis.1 But at the same time, it is problematic to impose a binary division


- Western New England University School of Law
     1. See infro Part IV.B. Women are not categorically athletically inferior, but there are
both socially constructed as well as biological differences between men and women that
influence athletic outcomes. Women's historical exclusion from sport and the strained
relationship between athleticism and femininity have and continue to suppress women's
athletic interests and abilities. In addition, women are generally (though not categorically)

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