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24 Wis. Int'l L.J. 703 (2006-2007)
From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect

handle is hein.journals/wisint24 and id is 711 raw text is: FROM HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION TO THE
RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT
GARETH EVANS*
What should be the response of the international community
when faced with situations of catastrophic human rights violations within
states, where the state in question claims immunity from intervention
based on longstanding principles of national sovereignty? When, if ever,
it is right for states to take coercive action, in particular military action,
against another state for the purpose of protecting people at risk within
it?
These issues, the centerpiece of international debate for most of
the 1990s, have not gone away, despite current preoccupations with a
new post-9/11 slate of concerns: global terrorism, externally directed
Islamist extremism, energy security, nuclear proliferation, and resurgent
nationalism. They are intellectually right at the intersection point of
international relations, law, policy, ethics, human rights, and human
security. And in practice they keep coming to haunt us: most obviously,
currently, in Darfur, where over the last three years at least two hundred
thousand people have died, over two million have been displaced, and
five thousand more are dying each month from war-related disease and
malnutrition as well as from continuing outright violence; and where
international peacekeeping efforts have been manifestly inadequate,
political settlement talks have been floundering, humanitarian relief is
faltering, and the overall situation is again deteriorating.'
Keynote Address by Gareth Evans, President of International Crisis Group and Co-Chair of the
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 2001, to Symposium on
Humanitarian Intervention, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Mar. 31, 2006. Gareth Evans is
the current President of the International Crisis Group (ICG) and former Australian Foreign
Minister (1988-96). He is a former member of the UN Secretary General's High-level Panel on
Threats, Challenges and Change, the Zedillo International Task Force on Global Public Goods
and the Blix Commission on Weapons of Mass Destruction.
See INT'L CRISIS GROUP, To SAVE DARFUR, AFRICA REPORT 105, 1-4, n.9 (2006), available at
http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/africa/horn of africa/105to-save-darfur.pdf.

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