38 Willamette L. Rev. 1 (2002)
Grand Illusion - The Brandenburg Test and Speech that Encourages or Facilitates Criminal Acts

handle is hein.journals/willr38 and id is 11 raw text is: ARTICLE
WILLAMETTE LAW REVIEW
Vol. 38:1 Winter 2002
GRAND ILLUSION?
THE BRANDENBURG TEST AND SPEECH
THAT ENCOURAGES OR FACILITATES
CRIMINAL ACTS
MARC ROHR*
Table of Contents
I. Introduction  ........................................................................   2
II. What Did Brandenburg Mean? ................................................ 5
A. The Decision and Its Background ........................................... 5
B. Subsequent Supreme Court Decisions ..................................... 10
C. Brandenburg's Ambiguities ................................................  14
1. The  W ords of the  Test .................................................... 15
2. The Reach of Brandenburg .............................................. 19
III. What Have the Lower Courts Done? ....................................... 25
A. The Solicitation and Conspiracy Cases ...................................... 26
B. The Unintentional Incitement Cases ....................................... 29
C. The Tax Fraud Advocacy Cases .......................................... 32
D. The Criminal Instruction Cases ............................................ 39
* B.A., Columbia University, 1968; J.D., Harvard Law School, 1971. Professor of
Law, Shepard Broad Law Center, Nova Southeastern University. The Author wishes to ex-
press his appreciation to the Shepard Broad Law Center of Nova Southeastern University,
which funded this Article through a summer research grant, and to his colleague, Professor
Johnny Burris, for his helpful comments.

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