18 Whitehead J. Dipl. & Int'l Rel. 20 (2017)
Latin American Resource Populism in the Early 21st Century

handle is hein.journals/whith18 and id is 133 raw text is: 

Latin  American Resource Populism in the Early 21st Century

by Marten Brienen


INTRODUCTION

In  recent years, a wave of populism has come over much  of the world. In
  the United States, Donald J. Trump's populist message reverberated among
voters sufficiently to see him ascend to the presidency. In Europe, a clearly
populist campaign led by Nigel Farage resulted in the looming exit of Great
Britain from the European  Union. Elsewhere on the continent, Marine Le
Pen may  not have  won  the presidential election, but her participation in
the runoff was a clear victory for her anti-European and anti-immigrant
nationalist platform. Likewise, while many observers were positively gleeful
to note that Geert Wilders had not won the Dutch parliamentary elections,
as many had  feared he might do, but those observers failed to note that his
party grew into the second largest in the country, while the traditionally
powerful socialists were utterly destroyed.'
       Latin America  seems  out of step with the world, as it appears to
be currently emerging from  a cycle of populist rule commonly referred to
as the Pink Tide, which began with the inauguration of Venezuela's Hugo
Chdvez  in 1999.2 While observers have been declaring the end of the Pink
Tide for a few years now, the reality is that the movement is not quite dead
yet: Nicolds Maduro remains in power, as does Evo Morales - who appears
not quite ready to throw in the towel.' While Rafael Correa has stepped aside
in perfectly democratic fashion, his successor, Lenin Moreno, is very much a
believer in what has been termed twenty-first century socialism.
       In this article, I will focus on the more outspoken of the members
of the Pink Tide, and suggest that within the resurgence of the left in Latin
America  there is a distinct subset of populists who have married resource
nationalism to populism to produce something altogether separate from the

Dr. Marten Brienen taught in both the African and Latin American Studies Programs at
the University of Miami from 2004 to 2013. From 2011 to 2013, he served as the director
of the Latin American Studies Program at the University of Miami. While he has worked
on a variety of subjects, the fundamental principle that binds them together is his ongoing
interest in the struggle between marginalized populations and the interests of states in the
process of national construction in Latin America. From that perspective, he has in recent
years focused primarily on energy security, drug trafficking, and complex emergencies.


Seton Hall Journal ofDiplomacy and International Relations

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