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59 Vand. L. Rev. 1811 (2006)
On the Effective Communication of the Results of Empirical Studies, Part I

handle is hein.journals/vanlr59 and id is 1827 raw text is: On the Effective Communication
of the Results of Empirical Studies,
Part 1*
Lee Epstein, Andrew D. Martin, & Matthew M. Schneider+
I        IN TRODU   CTION   ................................................................... 1812
II.     M  OTIVATION     ....................................................................... 1816
A.       Developments in the Legal Academy ...................... 1816
B        Developments Outside the Legal Academy ............. 1822
III.     GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR COMMUNICATING DATA
AN D  R ESU  LTS  ...................................................................... 1827
A.       Communicate Substance, not Statistics ................. 1827
B.       When Performing Inference,
Convey    Uncertainty ................................................. 1835
C.       Graph Data and Results ......................................... 1838
IV.      GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR VISUALIZING DATA
AN D  R ESU  LTS  ..................................................................... 1845
A.       Aim for Clarity and Impact .................................... 1847
1.      Eliminate Distracting Elements ................. 1851
2.       Trust Your Readers ..................................... 1861
B .      Itera te  ...................................................................... 186 4
C.       Write Detailed Captions .......................................... 1868
V .      C ON CLU  SION  ....................................................................... 1870
Prepared for presentation at the Vanderbilt Law Review's Symposium on Empirical
Legal Scholarship, February 17, 2006.
+    Lee Epstein (http://epstein.law.northwestern.edu/) is the Beatrice Kuhn Professor of
Law at Northwestern University School of Law; Andrew D. Martin (http://adm.wustl.edu/) is
Professor of Law and Professor of Political Science at Washington University in St. Louis;
Matthew M. Schneider is a Ph.D. student at Washington University in St. Louis. We are grateful
to the National Science Foundation for supporting our research and to Jessica Flanigan and Kate
Jensen for their research assistance. We also thank Gary Klass for his helpful comments. We
used Stata and R to conduct the analyses and to produce the graphs presented in this article.
The project's web site (http://epstein.law.northwestern.edu/research/communicating.html) houses
replication  materials. Please send  all correspondence to Lee Epstein. Email: lee-
epstein@northwestern.edu. Post: Northwestern University School of Law, 357 E Chicago Ave,
Chicago, IL, 60611-3069.
1811

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