24 Vand. L. Rev. 1213 (1970-1971)
Legal Paraprofessionalism and Its Implications: A Bibliography

handle is hein.journals/vanlr24 and id is 1227 raw text is: Legal Paraprofessionalism and Its
Implications: A Bibliography*
Lester Brickman**
To understand properly both the conceptual foundation of the bibli-
ography and the potential socio-legal significance of the legal parapro-
fessional, it is necessary to comprehend the role of the legal profession
in our democracy. The principal actors in the profession are, of course,
lawyers who practice law. One facet of the practice of law is
lawyering, a term that may be used to mean the invocation of the
legal process to resolve competing claims. The means by which lawyer-
ing services are conveyed to the consumer may be termed the legal
services delivery mechanism, which is maintained by the legal profes-
sion through its control over lawyers and the practice of law. The height-
ening realization of the pivotal position of the lawyering process in the
attainment of such democratic goals as due process and equal protection
accounts in large measure for the increasing concern for the development
and utilization of trained lawyers' assistants, who may be referred to
generically as legal paraprofessionals.'
Since claims are demands made upon decision-makers that will
have impact on the distribution of values in society,2 the resolution of
competing claims determines the social mapping of society. These reso-
lutions are regulated through processes commonly regarded as legal
* Much of this bibliography was assembled from July 1970 through March 1971 while
performing a consulting contract with the Ford Foundation that culminated in the preparation of
a confidential report. The author wishes to express his appreciation to the Government and Law
Division of the Ford Foundation for the opportunity to examine closely the legal paraprofessional
**  Professor of Law, University of Toledo College of Law. B.S. 1961, Carnegie-Mellon
University; J.D. 1964, University of Florida; LL.M. 1965, Yale University.
1. See generally Brickman, Expansion of the Lawyering Process Through A New Delivery
System: The Emergence and State of Legal Paraprofessionalism, 71 COLUM. L. Rav. 1153 (1971).
2. A more detailed analysis of the values of democratic society is contained in McDougal,
The Comparative Studj, of Law for Policy Purposes: Value Clarification as an Instrument of
Democratic World Order, 61 YALE L.J. 915 (1952). McDougal includes in a listing of democratic
values the wide sharing of power, both formal and effective, including participation in the proc-
esses of government and of parties and pressure groups, and equality before the law. Id. at 916.
See also McDougal, Perspectives for an International Law of Human Dignity, 1958-1959 in AMI.
Soc. OF INT'L LAW PROCEEDINGS 107 (1959) (address to the Society); Lasswell & McDougal, Legal
Education & Public Policy: Professional Training in the Public Interest, 52 YALE L.J. 203, 212


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