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44 Va. J. Int'l L. 879 (2003-2004)
Whistleblowing: Australian, U.K., and U.S. Approaches to Disclosure in the Public Interest

handle is hein.journals/vajint44 and id is 889 raw text is: Whistleblowing:
Australian, U.K., and U.S. Approaches to
Disclosure in the Public Interest
ELLETTA SANGREY CALLAHAN,* TERRY MOREHEAD DWORKIN,**
& DAVID LEWIS***
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.   Introduction   ........................................................................................................ 880
II.  Whistleblowing Legislation: Premises and Catalysts ....................................... 881
III. Legislative Approaches to Whistleblowing ...................................................... 884
A.   Characteristics of Protected Disclosures .................................................... 884
1.   Categories of Reported Misconduct ................................................... 884
2.   Public v. Private Sector Protection ..................................................... 886
3.   Gravity   of the  W rongdoing   ................................................................. 888
4.   Is Past Wrongdoing Protected? ........................................................... 889
B .  D isclosure  O utlets ....................................................................................... 889
1.   Internal v. External Reporting     ............................................................ 890
2.   Designating an External Recipient ..................................................... 892
3.   Whistleblowing to the Media .............................................................. 893
C.   Motive and Protected Disclosure: Loyal Voice, Open Hand,
Sp itefu l  H eart  .............................................................................................. 895
1.   The  Relevance    of M otive .................................................................... 895
2.   Financial   R ew ards  ............................................................................... 896
D.   Sufficient Evidence to Support a Disclosure ............................................. 898
E.   D eterrents  to  R etaliation  ............................................................................. 899
1.   Penalties  for  Retaliation  ...................................................................... 899
2 .  D am  ages  .............................................................................................. 90 1
* Associate Professor, Law and Public Policy, Whitman School of Management, Syracuse
University, Syracuse, New York, USA.
** Jack R. Wentworth Professor, Business Law, Kelley School of Business, Indiana
University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
*** Professor of Employment Law, Middlesex University, United Kingdom.

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