44 Va. J. Int'l L. 1073 (2003-2004)
Rhetoric or Rights: When Culture and Religion Bar Girls' Right to Education

handle is hein.journals/vajint44 and id is 1083 raw text is: I       NOTE
Rhetoric or Rights?:
When Culture and Religion Bar
Girls' Right to Education
L. ELIZABETH CHAMBLEE*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.   Introduction   ...................................................................................................... 1074
II.  The International Right to Education and Nondiscrimination ....................... 1078
A.   International Instruments Providing for the Right to Education ............. 1078
B.   Islamic Countries' Ratification of, and Reservations to, Treaties .......... 1083
C. United Nations Organizations, Commissions, and Committees
D evoted  to  Education   ............................................................................... 1089
III. The Core Content of the Right to Education: State Obligations ................... 1092
A .  A vailab ility  ................................................................................................ 1093
B .  A ccessibility   .............................................................................................. 1095
1. Accessibility in Law and in Fact: The Non-Discrimination
Dimension ..................................................................... 1095
2.   The State's Role in Undermining De Facto Discrimination ............ 1097
C .  A cceptability    ............................................................................................. 1099
D .  A daptab  ility  ............................................................................................... 1102
IV. Religious/Social/Cultural Obstacles to Gender Equality in Education ......... 1104
A.   The Islamic Religion and the Direct Requirements of the Qur'an ......... 1105
1.   Islam ic  L aw   ....................................................................................... 1 107
2.   The Veiled Threat to Education ........................................................ 1110
3.   The Increased Risk of HIV/AIDS from Polygamy .......................... 1112
B.   Social and Cultural Manifestations of Islam-Traditional Values and
P ractices  .................................................................................................... 1 11 7
1.   E arly  M arriage  ................................................................................... 1118

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