38 Va. J. Int'l L. 689 (1997-1998)
The Moral Exception in Trade Policy

handle is hein.journals/vajint38 and id is 701 raw text is: The Moral Exception in Trade Policy
STEVE CAmRNovrrz
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.  Introduction  ............................................................................. 689
A. Analyzing the Trade and Morals Linkage .................... 690
B. Scope of this Study ........................................................... 692
II. Interpreting GATT Article XX(a) ....................................... 694
A. Rules of Treaty Interpretation ....................................... 699
B. Preparatory Work for Article XX .................................. 703
C. Prior Treaties with a Moral Exception .......................... 705
D. The Perceived Need for the Moral Exception .............. 710
E. A    Summary of Interpretation According to the
Vienna Convention .......................................................... 716
F. GATT Adjudication: The Tuna-Dolphin Cases ......... 718
G. The Moral Exception in European Treaties ................. 724
Ill. Implementing the GATT Moral Exception ......................... 729
A. Animals Caught by Leghold Traps ................................ 736
B. Products Made by Indentured Children ........................ 740
C. Internationalizing Trade Morality ................................. 742
IV. Other Moral Exceptions in the WTO ................................... 743
V .  Conclusion  ................................................................................ 744
I. INTRODUCTION
The clash between trade and morality continues to rattle inter-
national economic relations. At issue is whether trade restrictions
may be used to promote moral goals. An important consideration
in this debate is whether morality-driven trade measures conflict
* Director, Global Environment & Trade Study, Yale University. The author wishes to
thank Damien Geradin, Paul Kahn and Christopher D. Stone for their helpful comments.

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