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38 Va. J. Int'l L. 507 (1997-1998)
Conscientious Objection as an Emerging Human Right

handle is hein.journals/vajint38 and id is 519 raw text is: [NOTE
Conscientious Objection as an
Emerging Human Right
EMILY N. MARCUS*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.   Introduction    ................................................................................ 508
II. The Balance Between State Sovereignty to Conscript &
Conscientious Objection as a Human Right ........................... 510
III. Sources of International Law & the Recognition of a
Human Right to Conscientious Objection .............................. 513
A. International Treaties & the Human Rights They
Em  body ................................................................................ 513
1.   The Emerging Consensus: Treaty Rights that
Create a Human Right to Conscientious
O bjection  ...................................................................... 514
2.   Alternative Rights that Effect An
Interpretation of Conscientious Objection As A
Human Right ............................................................... 517
B.   Customary International Law ........................................... 524
C.   State  Practice ....................................................................... 527
D. Subsidiary Sources of International Law ......................... 531
IV. The Scope & Definition of the Right of Conscientious
O bjection  ..................................................................................... 538
A. Sources of Objection to Military Service: Religious
or Ethical Objectors ........................................................... 539
* J.D., University of Virginia School of Law, 1998; B.A., University of Michigan, 1991.
The author wishes to thank Professor Janelle Diller for her assistance in the development
of this Note.

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