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28 U.S.F. Mar. L.J. 141 (2015-2016)
The International Legal Obligation to Rescue during Mass Migration at Sea: Navigating the Sovereign and Commercial Dimensions of a Mediterranean Crisis

handle is hein.journals/usfm28 and id is 161 raw text is: 







The International Legal Obligation to Rescue
During Mass Migration at Sea: Navigating the
Sovereign and Commercial Dimensions of a
Mediterranean Crisis


                        RICHARD L. KILPATRICK, JR. &
                        LT ADAM SMITH, JAGC, USN*


I. IN TRO D U CTION   ....................................................................................... 142
II. UNDERSTANDING THE LEGAL OBLIGATION TO RESPOND TO
     DISTRESSED MIGRANT VESSELS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA .... 144
     A. The Legal Obligation to Render Assistance at Sea .................... 14.4
     B. The Legal Obligation to Transfer Rescued Persons to a Place
         o f  S afety  ................................................................................... 14 7
III.IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SHIPPING INDUSTRY: RISKS, COSTS, AND
     ENFORCEMENT OF COMMERCIAL VESSEL COMPLIANCE WITH
     THE D UTY TO RESCUE ..................................................................... 150
     A. The Risks Associated with Commercial Vessel Involvement
         in M ass Rescue  Operations ...................................................... 150
     B. The Costs Associated with Commercial Vessel Involvement
         in M ass Rescue  Operations ...................................................... 154
     C. Enforcing Commercial Vessel Compliance with the
         O bligation  to  R escue  ............................................................... 160
IV. IMPLICATIONS FOR SOVEREIGN ACTORS: RESPONSIBILITIES,
     INTERESTS, AND HISTORICAL LESSONS DRIVING STATE
     RESPONSES TO MASS MIGRATION AT SEA ..................................... 167
     A. State Responsibilities and Interests Associated with Migrant
         Vessels in  the M editerranean  Sea ............................................ 167
            1. State Responsibilities for Facilitating Rescues At Sea .. 167
            2. State Interests Driving Engagement with Migrant
               V essels  at  Sea  .............................................................. 170
      B. Historical Approaches Informing State Action in the Current
         Migration Crisis in the M editerranean  Sea .............................. 176
            1. The United States: The Haitian Crisis ........................... 176
            2. Australia: The Pacific Solution ...................... 177

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