5 U. Ottawa L. & Tech. J. 1 (2008)

handle is hein.journals/uoltj5 and id is 1 raw text is: Making Copyright Whole:
A Principled Approach to Copyright Exceptions and
Daniel J. Gervais*
limitations and exceptions at the international level. The paper argues that, normatively, copyright has always
sought to reflect a balance between protection and access. It demonstrates that this balance was present to
the minds of the negotiators of the 1886 Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
and may have been somewhat overlooked in revisions of the Convention. It was ultimately replaced by a
three-step test designed to restrict the ability of individual legislators to create limitations and exceptions.
The article also considers the conflicts between copyright and rights such as the right to privacy, human
rights principles of free expression and cultural diversity, the right to information, the right to education, and
the nascent right to development, all of which imply striking a balance in intellectual property protection.
The article begins with a historical look at the public interest foundations of the Beine Convention and its
revisions until 1971. The article then proceeds to a conceptualization of limitations and exceptions in order
to show the policy linkages of each type of exception and proposes a set of principles for limitations and
exceptions. The article also examines the meaning and impact of the three-step test because it would be
pointless, not theoretically, but from a policy perspective, to ignore the application of the test in suggesting
international principles for limitations and exceptions.
principes, des limites et exceptions en matiere de droit d'auteur au niveau international. Dans le texte, on
soutient que, de maniere normative, le droit d'auteur a toujours cherch6   refleter un equilibre entre
protection et acc~s. Dans cet article, on d6montre que cet 6quilibre 6tait pr6sent clans I'esprit des
n6gociateurs de la Convention de Berne pour la protection des ceuvres litt6raires et artistiques en 1886, mais
qu'il aurait 6t6 quelque peu laiss6 de c6t6 lors des r6visions de la Convention. Cette pr6occupation d'6quilibre
aurait finalement 6t6 remplac6e par un critbre en trois volets destin6 6 restreindre la capacit6 des l6gislateurs
individuels de creer des limites et des exceptions. Dans cet article, on examine 6galement les conflits entre
le droit d'auteur et d'autres droits tels que le droit a la vie priv6e, les principes des droits de la personne que
sont la libre expression et la diversite culturelle, le droit a I'information, I'egalit6 des chances en 6ducation, et
le droit naissant au d6veloppement, tous ces droits impliquant qu'il faille r6aliser un equilibre en matiere de
protection de la propri6t6 intellectuelle. Le texte d6bute par un aperqu historique des fondements de l'int6ret
public de la Convention de Berne et de ses r6visions jusqu'en 1971. 1'article se poursuit en proposant une
conceptualisation des limitations et exceptions afin de d6montrer les liens politiques de chaque des
exceptions et propose un ensemble de principes applicables aux limites et aux exceptions. Cet article
examine en outre la signification et I'incidence de ce critere en trois 6tapes dans la mesure ou il serait sans
int6r6t, non pas sur un plan th6orique, mais selon une perspective de politique, de faire fi de I'application du
critere en proposant des principes internationaux pour r6gir les limites et les exceptions.
Copyright 2008  by Daniel J. Gervais.
Acting Dean, University Research Chair in Intellectual Property and Osler Professor of Law. Though the author takes full
responsibility for the ideas expressed in this paper, the author is grateful to Professors Pamela Samuelson, Ruth Okediji, P
Bernt Hugenholtz and Justin Hughes and participants in the OSI workshop on limitations and exceptions held at Cardozo
Law School in December 2007 for their most helpful comments.

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