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69 U.N.B.L.J. 322 (2018)
What Is Islamophobia

handle is hein.journals/unblj69 and id is 328 raw text is: 

                         WHAT IS ISLAMOPHOBIA?

                         Reem Bahdi & Azeezah Kanji1

           the whole engine of collective social meaning was effectively
           geared to keeping these obscured experiences out of sight. 2

I.       Introduction

Popularized in 1985 by Edward Said, the term Islamophobia has become part of
Canada's political, legal, and popular lexicons.3 The I word, though controversial,
appears frequently in public spaces and debates.4 National newspapers have
condemned Islamophobia.5 Legislatures have committed to fighting Islamophobia.6
Scholars write about the prevalence of Islamophobia in our post 9/11 world.' Petitions
and Charters signed by scores of people have urged more action against
Islamophobia.8 Non-governmental organizations have developed campaigns to
document and reverse Islamophobia.9 Increased references to Islamophobia in popular

Reem Bahdi is an Associate Professor at the University of Windsor, Faculty of Law. She appeared as the
expert witness for the Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse before the Quebec
Tribunal in Quebec (Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse) c Bombardier inc
(Bombardier Aerospace Training Center) 2010 QCTDP 16, [2011] RJQ 225 [Bombardier, Tribunal, cited
to neutral citation]. Azeezah Kanji is a legal academic and writer; she currently serves as the Director of
Programming at the Noor Cultural Centre.
2 Miranda Fricker, Epistemic Injustice: Knowledge and the Ethics of Knowing (New York: Oxford
University Press, 2007) at 153.
See Edward W Said, Orientalism Reconsidered (1985) 27:2 Race & Class 1.

Globe Editorial: While Quebec Muslims Mourn, Politicians Plays Word Games, The Globe and Mail
(10 January 2018), online: <https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/editorials/globe-editorial-while_
5 Ibid.
6 See e.g. below at No Accepted Legal Definition, referring to Ontario's Anti-Racism Act, 2017, SO 2017,
c 15 [Anti-Racism Act].

' See e.g. Aniceto Masferrer, ed, Post 9/11 and the State of Permanent Legal Emergency: Security and
Human Rights in Countering Terrorism (Dordrecht: Springer, 2012).
8 See e.g. below at No Accepted Legal Definition, referring to Petition e-411 and the National Council
for Canadian Muslims' Charter for Inclusive Communities.
' See e.g. Coalition of Agencies Launches Ad Campaign to Challenge Islamophobia & Racism, Cision
(23 January 2017), online: <https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/coalition-of-agencies-launches-ad-
campaign-to-challenge-islamophobia-racism-611526405.html>; Harmeet Singh, New PSA Campaign
Tackles Growing Islamophobia, Strategy (24 January 2017), online: <strategyonline.ca/2017/01/24/new-
psa-campaign-tackles-growing-islamophobia!>; Anti-Islamophobia, online: Ontario Council of Agencies
Serving Immigrants <www.ocasi.org/campaigns/anti-islamophobia>; Emily Cury, How Muslim
Americans are Fighting Islamophobia and Securing their Civil Rights, The Conversation (4 September

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