37 U. Haw. L. Rev. 429 (2015)
Implicit Bias in Hawai'i: An Empirical Study

handle is hein.journals/uhawlr37 and id is 443 raw text is: 






Implicit Bias in Hawai'i: An Empirical Study



              Justin D. Levinson, Koichi Hioki & Syugo Hotta*




                              I. INTRODUCTION


   More than twenty years after pervasive implicit racial bias began to be
documented by social scientists, a tremendous body of scholarship teaches
citizens and scholars alike about the power and breadth of implicit racial
bias in America and beyond.' Hundreds of empirical studies have found,
using wide-ranging methodologies, that people possess a vast range of
implicit biases that largely function outside their conscious awareness and
                                                2
can act to corrupt decision-making processes.     These biases, for example,
manifest in the way people consistently associate certain groups (e.g.,
Native Americans, Black Americans, the elderly, the disabled, the
overweight) with negative traits (e.g., violent, immoral, lazy) and other
groups (e.g., White Americans, the physically abled, the thin) with positive


    . Professor of Law and Director, Culture and Jury Project, University of Hawai'i
William S. Richardson School of Law. The authors would like to thank Melody Kapilialoha
MacKenzie and Eric Yamamoto for their comments and wise guidance. Krysti Uranaka and
Desiree Manuel provided outstanding research assistance. Dean Aviam Soifer offered
generous research support to the first author. Please address correspondence to Justin D.
Levinson at justinl@hawaii.edu.
      Assistant Professor, Kobe University, Graduate School of Business Administration.
      Professor, Meiji University School of Law.
      See, e.g., Anthony G. Greenwald et al., Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit
Cognition: The Implicit Association Test, 74 J. PERSONALITY & Soc. PSYCHOL. 1464 (1998)
(introducing attitude and stereotype implicit association tests (IATs) and concluding that
the IAT is a useful measure of implicit racial bias); Mahzarin R. Banaji, Implicit Attitudes
Can Be Measured, in THE NATURE OF REMEMBERING: ESSAYS IN HONOR OF ROBERT G.
CROWDER 117 (Henry L. Roediger III et al. eds., 2001); Joshua Correll et al., The Police
Officer's Dilemma: Using Ethnicity to Disambiguate Potentially Threatening Individuals,
83 J. PERSONALITY & Soc. PSYCHOL. 1314 (2002); Nilanjana Dasgupta, Implicit Ingroup
Favoritism, Outgroup Favoritism, and Their Behavioral Manifestations, 17 Soc. JusT. RES.
143 (2004); Anthony G. Greenwald & Mahzarin R. Banaji, Implicit Social Cognition:
Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Stereotypes, 102 PSYCHOL. REv. 4 (1995); B. Keith Payne,
Prejudice and Perception:   The Role of Automatic and Controlled Processes in
Misperceiving a Weapon, 81 J. PERSONALITY & Soc. PSYCHOL. 181 (2001); Laurie A.
Rudman & Richard D. Ashmore, Discrimination and the Implicit Association Test, 10
GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP REL. 359 (2007).
    2 See, e.g., John T. Jost et al., A Decade of System Justification Theory: Accumulated
Evidence of Conscious and Unconscious Bolstering of the Status Quo, 25 POL. PSYCHOL.
881 (2004); Brian A. Nosek et al., Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and
Stereotypes, 18 EUR. REv. Soc. PSYCHOL. 1, 5-7 (2007).

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 2,700 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Access to this content requires a subscription. Please visit the following page to request a quote or trial:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?