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22 U. Denv. Water L. Rev. 745 (2018-2019)
Refugees of the 21st Century: Climate Change and an Uninhabitable Middle East/North Africa

handle is hein.journals/udenwr22 and id is 775 raw text is: 







    REFUGEES OF THE 21ST CENTURY: CLIMATE
    CHANGE AND AN UNINHABITABLE MIDDLE
                    EAST/NORTH AFRICA'

                      BRADLEY CUMMINGS

 Introduction............................................746
 I. Climate Change...........................      ................747
        A. Global Effects ..................       ................747
        B. Localized Effects in MENA.........................748
        C. Syria.........................................748
           1. History.....................................748
           2. Syrian Climate Change Impacts          ....................749
        D. Qatar........................................750
           1. History.....................................750
           2. Qatari Climate Change Impacts.         ....................751
        E. Egypt.............751
           1. History............................        ............ 751
              i. Nile River ............   ..... .............. ................ 752
           2. Egyptian Climate Change Impacts........     ...................752
H.  Collateral Damages......................................753
        A. Overview...................... 753
        B. Heat Induced Aggression        ...................................753
        C. Dimiishing Water Resources.................................754
        1). Overcrowding, Substandard Living Conditions, and Food
           Insecurity.............................       ............. 755
III. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
        (UNFCCC)        ............................... .............. 756
        A. History.................................      ............. 756
        B. Kyoto Protocol.         ................................  .....756
        C. Annex Parties     ............................    .............756
        D. Financial M echanism ................................................................. 757
        E. Paris Agreement: Overview      ...........................757
        F. Mitigation vs. Adaptation    ..............................758
        G. Nationally Determined Contributions      ...............  ....759
        H. Support to At-Risk Nations          ..........................761
        I. National Adaptation Plans      ....................   ......763


   1. Mr. Cummning's article was dhe 2019 wrinner of the annual Professor Fred Chcevcr Envi-
ronmental and Natural Resources Writing Award.
   2. Bradley Cummings is a dual Masters recipient in Environmental and Natural Resources
Law from the University of ...nvr, St.rm College of .aw. H. is currently a third year law
student in theFis aoctorate program, and .e is also se.k.ng an  .     .M in Inte7nat5onal Business
Transactions. Mr. Cummings is also a miita y veteran and is activc in Veterans law representing
o.Spoless and disabled veterans.


745

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