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45 UCLA L. Rev. 1401 (1997-1998)
Public vs. Private Enforcement of Civil Rights: The Case of Housing and Employment

handle is hein.journals/uclalr45 and id is 1415 raw text is: PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL RIGHTS:
THE CASE OF HOUSING AND EMPLOYMENT
Michael Selmi
INTRO  DUCTION    ......................................................................................................  1402
I.   ENFORCEMENT OF THE FAIR HOUSING ACT          ................................................... 1405
A .  The G  overnment's Efforts  .......................................................................  1405
1.  The Complaint Filing   Process  ..........................................................  1406
2.   The  A dm inistrative  Process  .............................................................  1411
3.   Proceeding to Judgment: Choice of Forum    ...................................... 1415
B.   Government Efforts Compared to the Private Bar .................................. 1416
C .  Pattern  and  Practice  Cases  ......................................................................  1422
1.   Home Mortgage Discrimination     ...................................................... 1423
2.   Testing and Disparate Impact Cases ................................................ 1425
II. EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION: THE CASE OF THE EEOC             ............................ 1427
A .  Do  Politics  M atter?  ..................................................................................  1430
B.   Private Attorneys and the 1991 Act ....................................................... 1435
III. CAN THE GOVERNMENT EFFECTIVELY ENFORCE CIVIL RIGHTS? .................... 1438
A. Explaining the Government's Enforcement Policies ............................... 1439
1.   Behavioral Incentives for Government Attorneys ........................... 1442
2.   Theory in Action: The Justice Department's
Em ploym  ent Litigation  ....................................................................  1447
3.   Other Bureaucratic Constraints: The Government
as  a  D efendant  .................................................................................  1450
B.   Private Attorneys and Civil Rights Cases ............................................... 1452
C. The Role of the Government in Enforcing Civil Rights ......................... 1456
CONCLUSION                   ....................................................   1458
In this Article, Professor Michael Selmi contends that one important reason
civil rights legislation has produced less change than originally expected is that
most of the legislation entrusted principal enforcement to the federal govern-
ment, and that enforcement has been seriously deficieni over time. Through
a detailed empirical analysis, this Article compares the efforts of public and
* Associate Professor of Law, George Washington University Law School. Earlier ver-
sions of this Article were presented at the 1996 Law and Society Conference, Glasgow, Scotland
and to the Faculty Workshop at George Washington University Law School. I am grateful for
the comments I received at those presentations, as well as additional comments from Charlie
Craver, Brian Landsberg, Wendy Parker, Robert Schwemm, and Jonathan Walker. Melissa
Kotlow and Carlos Mas provided excellent research assistance, and Leslie Lee provided her usual
outstanding library assistance.

1401

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