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22 Tul. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 145 (2013-2014)
To Group or Not to Group; Refugee Status for Central American Victims of Gang Violence

handle is hein.journals/tulicl22 and id is 153 raw text is: To Group or Not To Group?
Refugee Status for Central American
Victims of Gang Violence
Isabel Bonilla-Math6*
I.   INTRODUCTION         ....................................... ...... 145
II.  THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GANGS       ....................  .....1 47
A.   What Isa Gang?.        .......................     ..... 147
B.   Who Are the Victims of Gang Violence?. ....         ....... 150
III. GANG-RELATED VIOLENCE IN CENTRAL AMERICA........................ 151
A.   The Origin of Gangs in Central Ameica ................ 151
B. The Inability of Central American Governments To
Respond.................................. 152
IV. AN OVERVIEW OF THE 1951 REFUGEE CONVENTION AS
APPLIED TO GANG-RELATED ASYLUM SEEKERS ................... 155
V.   PROTECTION OFFERED UNDER U.S. LAW FOR GANG-
RELATED ASYLUM SEEKERS AS MEMBERS OF A PARTICULAR
SOCIAL GROUP         ............................................. 158
A. Membershio of a Particular Social Group.............. 158
B.   U S Jurisprudence Defining Particular Social
Group .....................1.6.1........161
C    Approaches Adopted by Other Nations To Define
Particular Social Group.   ..................... 164
VI. CONCLUSION           ......................................... ...... 165
I.   INTRODUCTION
In early March of this year, former gang member Giovanni Morales
was gunned down in front of Saint Francis of Assisi Church in Mejicanos,
El Salvador.' After having left his gang life behind four years earlier,
*    0 2013 Isabel Bonilla-Math6. J.D./MHA candidate 2015, Tulane University; B.A.
2010, cum laude, University of Miami. I would like to thank my family, friends, and members of
the Tulane Journal of International and Compamtive Law for their support. I hope this Comment
will foster awareness of the struggles of Central American victims of gang violence.
I.   Diana Escalante Insy Mendoza, Matan a un expandillero que trabajaba con elpadre
Tofio [Former Gang Member Who Worked with Father Todfo Was Killed], ELSALVADOR.COM
(Mar. 5, 2013), http://www.elsalvador.com/mwedh/nota/nota-completa.asp?idCat=47859&idArt-
7733792 (author's translation).
145

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