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14 Tul. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 503 (2005-2006)
Human Trafficking Enforcement in the United States

handle is hein.journals/tulicl14 and id is 509 raw text is: Human Trafficking Enforcement
in the United States
Cynthia Shepherd Torg'
I.   INTRODUCTION   ................................................................................. 503
II.  BACKGROUND    ................................................................................... 504
III.  TOOLS TO  BREAK  THE TRADE .......................................................... 506
IV   FIGHTING  THE  FIGHT  ........................................................................ 513
V    C ON CLUSION  .................................................................................... 5 19
I.   INTRODUCTION
On December 3, 2005, the United States formally joined ninety-
four other countries as an official party to the Protocol To Prevent,
Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and
Children (U.N. Protocol).' The U.N. Protocol signed in Palermo is a
multilateral component of the worldwide effort to combat modern-day
slavery. It seeks to prevent trafficking, protect victims, and promote
antitrafficking cooperation among governments.2 Consistent with the
U.N. Protocol, the United States and other governments have developed
antitrafficking programs which include the so-called Three P's:
prosecution of traffickers through enhanced penalties and investigative
priorities, protection of victims, and prevention of future trafficking.' To
combat human trafficking, the United States has incorporated the Three
P's into a broader, multidisciplinary and victim-centric approach.
While efforts to protect victims and prevent further victimization
are clearly important goals for the United States and the international
community, effective prosecution is the linchpin to eradicating human
trafficking. Prosecution, combined with the imposition of significant
penalties, not only provides protection by eliminating the perpetrator's
immediate ability to exploit the victim, but also serves to deter future
*    Chief Counsel, Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center, United States Department
of Justice, Organized Crime and Racketeering Section.
1.   Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women
and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized
Crime, G.A. Res. 55/25, Annex II, U.N. Doc. A/55/383 (Nov. 15, 2000).
2.   Id art. 2.
3.   See id.

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