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31 Technium Soc. Sci. J. 153 (2022)
Metacognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Digital Technologies in Metacognitive Skills Training

handle is hein.journals/techssj31 and id is 153 raw text is: -2                                                      Technium Social Sciences Journal
Vol. 31, 153-173, May, 2022
ISSN: 2668-7798
SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL                                  www.techniumscience.com
Metacognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Digital
Technologies in Metacognitive Skills Training
Eleni Mitsea, Athanasios Drigas2, Charalampos Skianis3
1 2Net Media Lab Mind - Brain R&D IIT - N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Athens, Greece,
'3University of the Aegean, Information & Communication Systems Engineering
Department, Samos, Greece
e.mitsea@gmail.coml, dr@iit.demokritos.gr2, cskianis@aegean.grf
Abstract. Extensive research has been conducted regarding socio-emotional skills training in
autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The latest autism research is now beginning to recognize the
role of metacognitive deficits in ASD as well as the importance of metacognitive skills training
in autism intervention. The purpose of the current review study is to shed light on the role of
metacognition in ASD and identify assistive technologies that may compensate for metacognitive
deficits. Specifically, we examine autism through the lens of the models of metacognition
developed by (Drigas and Mitsea, 2020; 2021). Following these metacognitive models, we
identified digital technologies that have the significant potential to train metacognitive skills in
people with ASD. These technologies include, among others, robotics, virtual reality, mobile
applications, digital serious games, coding digital games and robots. This review provides
evidence that people with autism face important difficulties in almost all metacognitive domains.
It also highlights that digital technologies are effective tools for training metacognitive skills
within the educational settings to facilitate students' inclusion. This study is one of the few
studies that deal with autism as a disorder of metacognition and gives pointers for future
experimental research regarding metacognitive intervention strategies with the assistance of
Keywords. Autism Spectrum Disorder, metacognitive skills, robotics, virtual reality, mobile
applications, serious games, coding, K-12 education, self-regulation, self-observation, self-
awareness, inclusive education
1. Introduction
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, pervasive, and multifactorial
neurodevelopmental     conditions. Diagnostic   criteria  include   impairments    in   social
communication and interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or
activities. Comorbid mental and medical morbidities are commonly described, resulting in
heterogeneity (Masi et al., 2017). Comorbid psychopathologies significantly over-represented
in ASD include anxiety, depression and mood disorders, oppositional defiant disorder,
attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual impairments (White et al., 2009;
Magnuson & Constantiono, 2011; Masi et al., 2017).


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