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6 Temp. Int'l & Comp. L.J. 217 (1992)
Class Actions for Continental Europe - A Preliminary Inquiry

handle is hein.journals/tclj6 and id is 223 raw text is: CLASS ACTIONS FOR CONTINENTAL EUROPE?
A PRELIMINARY INQUIRY
Richard B. Cappalli t
Claudio Consolott
I. INTRODUCTION (CAPPALLI & CONSOLO) ........................      218
II. CAPPALLI ON THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE .....................       221
A .  In  G eneral ................................................  221
B.  Class Action  Goals  ........................................  224
C. The 1966 Revision of Rule 23 ..............................  225
D. How the Class Process Works ..............................   228
E .  Is  It  Fair? .................................................  233
F. Public Actions Are Different .............................  238
III. ILLUSTRATIVE USES OF RULE 23 ..............................     240
A. Consumer Protection: General Law .........................   240
B. Consumer Protection: Special Statutes .......................  244
C. Environmental Harms and other Mass Torts . .............   248
IV. THE VOLUME OF CLASS LITIGATION ...........................       255
V.  THE  PROSPECTS IN  ITALY  .....................................  261
VI. CONSOLO ON THE ITALIAN REACTION ..........................       264
A. Object of These Reflections ................................  264
B. Advanced Economies Would Benefit From the Class Action's
Social Contribution  ........................................  266
C. Historical Evolution: The Class Suit as Enforcer of the Social
Duties of M ega-Interests  ...................................  271
D. The 1966 Reform: The Aconceptual, Flexible, Facilitative
Norm (With Some Supreme Court Resistance) ..............    273
E. Standing and the Object of the Class Action Suit ............  274
F.  Towards a  Reconstruction ..................................  275
1. The Process of Simultaneously Representing All Rights by
Means of One Representative: A Critique ...............  277
2. The Procedure Concerning Claims by a Plaintiff in His
Own Name and Right with Wider Binding Effects on the
Common Question: A Critique .........................    278
3. The Proposed Thesis. The Process Concerns a Creditor's
Claim Asserted Collectively by the Class as Plaintiff or Else
Equipped with a Subjective Existence Shaped by Office of
t Charles Klein Professor of Law and Government, Temple University School of Law; B.A.
1962, Williams College; J.D. 1965, Columbia University; L.L.M. 1974, Yale University.
tt Professor of Civil Procedure, University of Milan Faculty of Law; J.D. 1978, University of
Padua.

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