31 St. Mary's L.J. 751 (1999-2000)
Deconstructing Constructive Threats: Classification and Analysis of Threatening Speech after Watts and Planned Parenthood

handle is hein.journals/stmlj31 and id is 761 raw text is: DECONSTRUCTING CONSTRUCTIVE THREATS:
CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF THREATENING
SPEECH AFTER WATTS AND PLANNED PARENTHOOD
JEREMY C. MARTIN
I.  Introduction  ...............................................  752
II. Historical Development of the First Amendment Right of
Free Speech and the Treatment of Threats ................ 756
A. A Brief Synopsis of Relevant First Amendment Law.. 757
1.  Schenck  v. United  States ...........................  758
2.  Brandenburg  v. Ohio ..............................  760
3.  R.A.V. v. City  of St. Paul ..........................  760
B. Development of the True Threats Doctrine ............ 761
1. Threats to the President: Watts v. United States,
Rogers v. United States, and Roy v. United States .. 762
2. Threats to Individuals: Intent Requirement
Controversy  .......................................  766
a. Requiring That the Speaker Have the
Subjective Intent to Threaten ................. 767
b. Requiring That a Reasonable Person in the
Speaker's Position Foresee That the Recipient
Would Construe the Expression As a Threat .. 771
c. Requiring That a Reasonable Person in the
Recipient's Position Construe the Expression
A s  a  Threat  ...................................  773
C. The Latest Word: Planned Parenthood of the
Columbia/Willamette, Inc. v. American Coalition of
Life  A ctivists  ..........................................  774
III. Analysis of Existing Threat Law .......................... 775
A. Failure of the Circuits to Follow the Watts True Threat
A nalysis ...............................................  775
B. Internet's Facilitation of Implicitly Threatening
Expression  ............................................  778
C. Ineffectiveness of the Watts True Threat Analysis As
Applied to Non-Facially Threatening Expression ...... 781
D. Utility of the Dual Standard for Racial Discrimination
in  Threat A nalysis ................. ...................  784
E. Prior Attempts to Resolve the First Amendment
Problems Associated with the Nuremberg Files ........ 785

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 3,000 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?