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33 Stan. Envtl. L. J. 167 (2013-2014)
Tracking Twenty-Four Years of Discussions about Transparency in International Marine Governance: Where Do We Stand

handle is hein.journals/staev33 and id is 171 raw text is: Tracking Twenty-Four Years of Discussions
About Transparency in International
Marine Governance: Where Do We Stand?
Jeff Ardron,A Nichola Clark,' Katherine Seto,c
Cassandra Brooks,D Duncan CurrieE
& Eric Gilman'
Transparency in governance has been recognized as a principal tenet of
democracy and a primary objective of governing actors for centuries.
Discussions and    analyses of the concept of transparency       have been
pervasive in the literature on international and multinational institutions.
But to what degree is transparency being discussed by those international
institutions charged with the management of marine resources? To gauge
this discussion, this study tracked the use of transparency terminology in
annual meeting reports offourteen global and regional marine treaty bodies
over twenty-four years, from 1990 to 2013. The study considered the
contexts in which transparency was discussed, and whether transparency
was associated with mandatory, obligatory, or voluntary language. The
A Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany.
* Corresponding author, Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke
University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA, nichola.clark@duke.edu.
c Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of
California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
D Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources, Stanford University,
473 Via Ortega, Y2E2 Suite 226, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
E Globelaw, 7 Rangatira Terrace,St Andrews Hill, Christchurch New Zealand.
I College of Natural Sciences, Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. The
Authors appreciate the support of sponsors for the Stanford Law School Symposium
Emerging Perspectives on the Law, Science, and Policy of Dynamic Marine Conservation.
We further extend great appreciation to Martin Hall and Margaret Meg Caldwell for
their advice and input throughout the drafting of this article. We would also like to thank
the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions for funding the research that
inspired this paper.


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