44 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Com. 55 (2016-2017)
National Fossil Fuel Companies and Climate Change Mitigation under International Law

handle is hein.journals/sjilc44 and id is 61 raw text is: 





      NATIONAL FOSSIL FUEL COMPANIES AND
      CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION UNDER
                 INTERNATIONAL LAW

             Benoit Mayert &  Mikko Rajavuoritt

                         CONTENTS
ABSTRACT                          ....................................... 56
INTRODUCTION         ..................................... 56
I. BACKGROUND: STATES' CLIMATE CHANGE
      RESPONSIBILITIES  AND  NFFCS ...........    ..... 61
      A. Climate change, state responsibilities, and state-owned
         enterprises. ...............................  61
      B. Understanding State involvement in the fossil fuel
         sector ..    ....................................... 65
      C. Situating NFFCs in the superstructure of the global
         carbon-intensive economy....................  68
II. ATTRIBUTING  THE  CONDUCT   OF NFFCS  TO  STATES  .70
      A. Attribution under General International Law.............72
         1. NFFCs constituting an organ of the state.............73
         2. NFFCs exercising elements of governmental
            authority .  ......................... ...... 77
         3. NFFCs subject to instructions, direction or control . 80
      B. Attribution under International Human Rights Law....... 83
III. STATES' RESPONSIBILITIES  ARISING  FROM  NFFCS... 90
      A. Excessive greenhouse gas emissions directly attributable
         to the state.......................... 92
      B. Aid or assistance to other states .................. 96
      C. Prohibited economic incentives .................. 98
      D. Prohibited communication strategies .................. 100
      E. Incompatible development of vested interests.............. 103
IV. COMING  TO  TERMS  WITH  STATES'  INVOLVEMENT IN

t   Associate Professor, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Law,
http://www.benoitmayer.com, bnt.mayer@gmail.com.
tt PhD Candidate, University of Turku, Faculty of Law (Finland), mijora@utu.fi.

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