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5 Sing. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 165 (2001)
International Arbitration System as a Mechanism for the Settlement of Disputes Arising in Relation to Space Commercialization

handle is hein.journals/singa5 and id is 175 raw text is: Singapore Journal of International & Comparative Law
(2001) 5 pp 165 - 179
International Arbitration System as a Mechanism for the
Settlement of Disputes Arising in Relation to Space
Commercialization
Professor Chia-Jui Cheng*
I. INTRODUCTION
OVER the years, international space activities have become more and
more commercial. In the very beginning, outer space activities were
purely under the control of sovereign states since the first launching
of a satellite into outer space by the then USSR in 1957. Later on, the
United States, China, France, the United Kingdom and India successively
joined this space club as new members. It can be expected that the
number of actors in outer space activities will multiply in the future.
Consequently, states are primarily, but not exclusively, the actors of
international space law. International organizations and private enter-
prises are the most important actors after states. Inter-governmental
and governmental space organizations have also played a different
coordinated role in the management of a multi-satellite system. The
outer space activities of ITU, INTELSAT, INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT
have operated successfully in coordinating the commercial use of outer
space since 1971.' In the last ten years, the relaxation of tight gov-
ernment control in commercial space activities has led national and
*   Chairman, Asian Institute of International Air and Space Law, Taipei, Taiwan,
China.
1   International space law is also a new branch of international law, consisting
of rules governing the relationships between the numerous regional, national
and international agencies concerned with space issues, such as the United
Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), the International
Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), the International
Organization of Space Communications (INTERSPUTNIK), the Council on
International Cooperation in the Study and Utilization of Outer Space
(INTERCOSMOS), the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT),
the European Space Agency (ESA), the Arab Satellite Communication Organization
(ARABSAT), the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT),
the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
(EUMETSAT), the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France, see Cheng
Chia-Jui, 'New Sources of International Space Law', in The Use of Air and Outer
Space-Cooperation and Competition, Chia-Jui Cheng, ed, Kiuwer Law International,
The Hague/London/Boston, 1998, pp 211-212.

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