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54 S. Cal. L. Rev. 151 (1980-1981)
The Semantics of Judging

handle is hein.journals/scal54 and id is 165 raw text is: ARTICLES
THE SEMANTICS OF JUDGING
MICHAEL S. MOORE*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. LEGAL FORMALIST PRESUPPOSITIONS ABOUT
M EAN   IN G  ................................................     167
A.   THE REFERENTIAL THEORY OF MEANING .............               167
B.   THE LOGICAL POSITIVIST THEORY OF MEANING ......               170
1. Analytic Truths ....................................       170
2. The Criterial Theory of Meaning ...................        173
3. The Empiricist Thesis ..............................       175
C.   A SUBJECTIVIST ALTERNATIVE TO THE LOGICAL
POSITIVIST THEORY OF MEANING .....................            179
II. PROBLEMS FACING THE FORMALIST THEORIES
OF MEANING ............................................            180
A. PROBLEMS FACING THE LOGICAL POSITIVIST THEORY
OF  M EANING   ..........................................     181
1. General Problems with Any Objective Theory of
M eaning  ...........................................     181
a.  Ambiguity: ......................................     181
b. Metaphor: ......................................       188
c.  Vagueness.   .....................................    193
d. Open texture: ...................................      200
© Michael S. Moore April, 1980
* Professor of Law, University of Southern California Law Center. A.B. 1964, University
of Oregon; J.D. 1967, S.J.D. 1978, Harvard University. Earlier versions of this paper were
presented to two faculty workshops at the University of Southern California Law Center, to the
Legal Theory Workshop at the Yale Law School and to the Philosophy Department and Law
School at the University of Nebraska. My thanks go to the participants at these colloquia, and
particularly to Robert Audi, Scott Bice, Paul Brest, Ruth Gavison, Margaret Radin, Michael Sha-
piro, and Christopher Stone, for their many helpful comments and criticisms. This paper
originated from teaching Law, Language & Ethics at the University of Southern California Law
Center. Those familiar with the casebook of the same name by William Bishin and Christopher
Stone will recognize the debt owed to them for the ideas and examples of their casebook.

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