34 San Diego L. Rev. 249 (1997)
An Analysis of Two Federal Structures: The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution

handle is hein.journals/sanlr34 and id is 259 raw text is: An Analysis of Two Federal Structures:
The Articles of Confederation and the
Constitution
DOUGLAS G. SMITH*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.  INTRODUCTION  .......................................  250
I. EARLY MODELS OF POLITICAL UNION ..... .................... 258
A. Montesquieu ' Model: A Confederate Republic ............. 260
B.  Vattelr Model: Mutual Defense and Commercial Union ......  261
C. Pufendorf's Model: A Perpetual Treaty .. ................  264
III. TEXTUAL ANALYSIS: COMPARISON OF THE CONSTITUTION
AND THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION ........................ 268
A. Structural Similarities ..............................270
1.  Formation of a  Union  ...........................  270
2.  Reciprocity Among the States ......................  272
3. A General Government of Enumerated Powers ..........  278
4. Residual Powers Retained by the States ..............  281
5. Constitutional Protection for the States as Entities .......  283
6.  Supremacy  ...................................  284
B.  Structural Differences  ..............................  285
1. Scope of Enumerated Powers ......................  285
2.  The Sweeping  Clause  ...........................  288
3.  Source of Political Authority  ......................  291
4.  The Guarantee Clause ...........................  294
* Associate, Kirkland & Ellis, Chicago, I1. J.D., Northwestern University School
of Law; B.S./B.A., State University of New York at Buffalo. I am grateful for
comments on previous drafts of this Article from Stephen Gardbaum and Thomas
Merrill.

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