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25 San Diego L. Rev. 879 (1988)
Racial Subordination through Formal Equal Opportunity

handle is hein.journals/sanlr25 and id is 891 raw text is: Racial Subordination Through Formal
Equal Opportunity
ROY L. BROOKS*
I.  INTRODUCTION  .....................................................  881
II.  FORMAL  EQUAL  OPPORTUNITY ........................................  885
11.  THE  BLACK  M IDDLE  CLASS  ..........................................  898
A.  Defining  Characteristics .........................................  898
B.   The Subordination  Question  .....................................  902
1.  Dominant Class Problems ....................................  902
2.  Racial Subordination ........................................  913
a.    Strict Scrutiny  Test  ..................................  913
b.     Title  VII  ............................................  917
3.  Sum m ary  ..................................................  926
IV.  THE BLACK  WORKING  CLASS .........................................  928
A.  Defining  Characteristics .........................................  928
B.   The Subordination  Question  .....................................  931
1.  Dominant Class Problems ....................................  931
a.    H ousing  ............................................  932
b.    Education  ...........................................  934
1)  Primary  Education ...............................  934
2)   Higher Education ................................  936
2.  Racial Subordination ........................................  937
a.    H ousing  ............................................  937
1)  Intent  Test ......................................  937
2)  Strict Scrutiny  Test ..............................  942
3)   Fair Housing  Act ................................  945
4)   Damages and Protracted Litigation .................  947
b.    Education  ...........................................  949
1)  Primary  Education ...............................  949
2)   Higher Education ................................  953
3.  Sum m ary  ..................................................  958
V.  THE  BLACK  UNDERCLASS  ............................................  960
A.  Defining  Characteristics .........................................  960
B.   The Subordination  Question  .....................................  964
1.  Dominant Class Problems ....................................  964

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