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9 Rev. Eur. Stud. 279 (2017)
Develop a Model for the Elders' Leisure Time

handle is hein.journals/rveurost9 and id is 283 raw text is: 

                                                                Review of European Studies; Vol. 9, No. 1; 2017
                                                                        ISSN 1918-7173   E-ISSN 1918-7181
                                                          Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education

                  Develop a Model for the Elders' Leisure Time

                       Mohammad Hosein Ghorbani1 & Seyede Tahereh Mousavirad1
1 University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence:    Mohammad      Hosein   Ghorbani,   University  of   Tehran,   Tehran,   Iran.  E-mail:

Received: September 19, 2016          Accepted: October 2, 2016        Online Published: February 22, 2017
doi: 10.5539/res.v9nlp279             URL: http://doi.org/10.5539/res.v9nlp279

The present research intends to examine the model for elders' leisure time. This research is a
descriptive-analytical study, reported as applied study. The statistical population consists of the faculty members
of universities, managers and specialists at Championship Deputy, General Sports Federation and rural sports
federation and the sociologists. To analyze data, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. In the
present research, software SPSS22 was used for structural equation and software AMOS was used for design of
model. Results from research led to detect eight factors including managerial-political, economic, sociocultural,
health, educational, facility, sports, individual-environmental factors affecting elders' leisure time. Findings from
confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the elders' leisure time can be used. To sum up, the results from
research led to design of model for elders' leisure time so that managerial-political, economic, sociocultural,
health, educational, facility, sports, individual-environmental factors with factor loading 0.9, 0.87, 0.85, 0.84,
0.82, 0.76, 0.71 and 0.63 have the highest contribution, respectively. Further, findings from model fitting indices
indicate favorable fitting and confirmed model for elders' leisure.
Keywords: leisure time, elders, model
1. Introduction
Aging population refers to one of the phenomena of our time with the least deal with it, accurate progress, the best
status in future as forecasted and the most outcomes. This goes true in Iran, like many countries, and Iran's
movement to an aging population can be seen clearly. Hence, we will face a high percent of elderly population in
near future, thus planning to resolve predicted and unpredicted problems and meeting needs of this population
group should be considered at the study works and major plannings of the country (Imani, 2011). Of the issues
that demographers and social pathologists have attempted in the past years to confirm warnings about it refers to
the phenomenon of middle-aged population that can be considered a risk for a country, because with regard to the
statistics in 2016, Iran population will enter to the middle-aged stage, while as said by the experts, Iran has not
suitable structures in terms of arrival to the aging period, for which planning should be considered based on
population forecasts about the elders' needs including nursing homes, Food industry in accordance with the
elders' gastrointestinal tract, elders' leisure time and so on (Vakili, 2011). On the other hand, leisure time is the
most important and pleasant time for human beings and a part of hours in human's daily life that the person
engages in rest, leisure, development of awareness or social participation and engages in them voluntarily after
liberation from the job, family and social requirements. Leisure can be considered as the most important
opportunities and hours in human life (Sanaei, 2013). One of the most important causes of deviance, delinquency
and social distortions is the personal and social disorganization in the field of leisure. From Islamic perspective,
leisure time is neither the time of liberation from legal and ethical constraints nor time of irresponsibility (Sharifi,
2012). Studies indicate that individuals in Iran society have free time for 3-4 hours in average in 24 hours a day. In
other words, one sixth or one third of the individuals' lifetime should be planned with the suitable and useful
programs separated from the daily life programs to spend leisure time of different social classes. Leisure in general
is a new concept, born out of the industrial age to which various responses have been given at various communities
well suited to cultural conditions, extent of development and social welfare, so that specific facilities are prepared
and various mechanisms well suited to the community are designed. Nowadays, countries invest in spending
leisure time as investing in employment. With regard to the necessity and importance of organizing leisure
activities for elders, most of developed countries have made macro and systematic planning on how this group of
people over 55 years old spend their leisure time (Jahromi, 2012). However leisure and recreational sports

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