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5 Rev. Eur. Stud. 130 (2013)
Effect of Corporal Punishment on Students' Motivation and Classroom Learning

handle is hein.journals/rveurost5 and id is 506 raw text is: 

                                                               Review of European Studies; Vol. 5, No. 4; 2013
                                                                         ISSN 1918-7173 E-ISSN 1918-7181
                                                         Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education

        Effect of Corporal Punishment on Students' Motivation and

                                     Classroom Learning

                               Jqbal Ahmad1, Hamdan Said1 & Faisal Khan2
1 Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Correspondence: Jqbal Ahmad, Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Skudai,
Malaysia. E-mail: shahnavi777@hotmail.com

Received: July 16, 2013  Accepted: August 15, 2013  Online Published: August 20, 2013
doi: 10.5539/res.v5n4p 130         URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/res.v5n4p 130

This study examined the effect of corporal punishment on students' motivation and classroom learning. Research
has indicated that behavior of teacher profoundly influences students' learning. It has been observed with great
concern that teachers in Pakistani schools resort to corporal punishment to motivate students for classroom
learning. Over the years this practice has resulted in reduced students' motivation towards learning.This study
was purposefully designed to investigate this area of concern. For this purpose, the study attempted to find
answer to the question that was there any relationship between corporal punishment and students' motivation and
classroom learning. Using a correlation design, the study surveyed attitudes of a randomely sampled 250
teachers from secondary schools in Malakand district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For data analysis, SPSS
was used. This research studied the relationship between the following three main variables: corporal
punishment as independent variable and student motivation and classroom learning as dependent variables. To
examine correlation between the variables, ANOVA and Regression Analysis were utilized. Results of the study
revealed that corporal punshment was significantly negatively correlated with students' motivation and
classroom learning.
Keywords: effect, corporal punishment, student motivation, classroom learning
1. Introduction
Students who are physically punished develop negative attitudes towards learning. Even such students when
develop into adult possess no empathy for others. Research has shown that children who are beaten up by their
teachers learn aggression (Boser, 2001; Friedman & Schonberg, 1996). They develop low self concept and see
aggression as a means to solve problems of life. Studies further indicated that corporal punishment intimidates
children. They develop low self-esteem and show dejection and hesitation to participate in learning activities
(Flynn, 1994; Brezina, 1999; Straus, 2003). This type of behavior has wider implications as it leads to bigger
violence later stages of life (Patel, 2003). The use of corporal punishment inculcates a strong belief in the
impressionable minds of students that force is justified to control unwanted or undesirable behaviors. Ultimately,
this promotes the attitudes of children that use of force or aggression is an acceptable act in the society (Straus,
1991; Baumrind, 1996; Roos, 2003). According to Roussow (2003) students who receive corporal punishment
show symptoms of dejection in studies, poor performance in the tests and also do not participate in the teaching
and learning process enthusiastically.Morrel (2000) found that use of corporal punishment influences attendance
of school children. Students remain absent from school and this situation of longer absenteeism leads to
withdrawal from schools. According to Vally (1998) the effects of physical punishment of students develop
more severe psychiatric and traumatic conditions in children. Students in such an environment consider schools
to be an unsafe place and thus they avoid coming to schools. This type of attitude of students is the direct result
of harsh corporal punishment and unsupportive learning environment where physical punishment is the norm
(Gershoff, 2002; Kaur, 2005; Tharps, 2003) Attitude of students towards learning depends upon many factors
such as classroom environment, teacher attitude, curriculum and resources. According to Daskalogianni and
Simpson (2000) attitude towards learning means the pattern of students' beliefs and emotions associated with
classroom environment. Hannulla (2002) found that students' performance, efficacy, motivation and
achievement in different subjects are essentially related to their attitude towards learning.

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