About | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline Law Journal Library | HeinOnline

72 Rutgers U.L. Rev. 455 (2019-2020)
Quantifying Reasonable Doubt

handle is hein.journals/rutlr72 and id is 471 raw text is: 







              QUANTIFYING REASONABLE DOUBT

       Daniel Pi,*  Francesco  Parisi,t and  Barbara   Luppitt


                           TABLE  OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION  .................................................................................... 455
II. BACKGROUND...................................................................................... 459
      A. The Origins of Reasonable Doubt ........................................... 459
      B. The  Search for a Definition................................................. 463
III. INTERPRETING REASONABLE   DOUBT................................................. 469
      A. Articulable Doubt .................................................................... 469
      B. Reasonable  Person's Doubt ..................................................... 472
      C. Probabilistic Doubt ................................................................. 477
           1. Juror Responsiveness..................................................... 477
           2. Frequency  and Certainty ............................................... 485
           3. Ratio of Social Costs ....................................................... 489
           4. Heterogeneity and  Tailoring the Standard................... 492
           5. Merging  Doctrinal f3 and Efficient f ............................. 495
IV. THE REASONABLE   DOUBT  STANDARD   BY JURISDICTION ................... 499
V . C ON CLU SION .....................................................................................  507


                           I. INTRODUCTION

    In a criminal trial, the prosecution bears the burden of proving the
defendant's   guilt beyond  a  reasonable  doubt. The   principle is a
cornerstone of the common  law:1 every criminal conviction in the United




   *   Mitchell Hamline School of Law. E-mail: daniel.pi@mitchellhamline.edu.
   t   University of Minnesota, School of Law and University of Bologna, Department of
Economics. E-mail: parisi@umn.edu.
   ft   University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Economics and John
Hopkins University. E-mail: barbara.luppi@unimore.it. Many thanks to Vincent Todd,
Lokys Gust, Jessica Ford, Ryan Bravo, Odise Carr, Favio Ramirez-Caminatti, and Lisa
Kaster for their invaluable research assistance. Special thanks also to Tomasz Mielniczuk
for his insightful suggestions and editorial assistance.
   1.  See United States v. Pepe, 501 F.2d 1142, 1143 (10th Cir. 1974) ([W]e recognize
that the reasonable doubt standard is a constitutional cornerstone of the criminal
justice system.); see also Herschel E. Richard, Jr., Insanity-The Burden of Proof, 30 LA.
L. REV. 117, 124 (1969).


455

What Is HeinOnline?

HeinOnline is a subscription-based resource containing nearly 3,000 academic and legal journals from inception; complete coverage of government documents such as U.S. Statutes at Large, U.S. Code, Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. Reports, and much more. Documents are image-based, fully searchable PDFs with the authority of print combined with the accessibility of a user-friendly and powerful database. For more information, request a quote or trial for your organization below.



Short-term subscription options include 24 hours, 48 hours, or 1 week to HeinOnline with pricing starting as low as $29.95

Contact us for annual subscription options:

Already a HeinOnline Subscriber?

profiles profiles most