33 Rutgers L.J. 929 (2001-2002)
Tracing the Lineage: Textual and Conceptual Similarities in the Revolutionary-Era State Declarations of Rights of Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware

handle is hein.journals/rutlj33 and id is 939 raw text is: TRACING THE LINEAGE: TEXTUAL AND CONCEPTUAL
SIMILARITIES IN THE REVOLUTIONARY-ERA STATE
DECLARATIONS OF RIGHTS OF VIRGINIA, MARYLAND,
AND DELAWARE
Dan Friedman*
I. THE EVENTS IN THE STATES: VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, AND DELAWARE 933
A .  Virginia  ........................................................................................... 933
B .  M aryland  ......................................................................................... 937
C .  D elaw are  ......................................................................................... 938
II. IDENTIFYING THE PROPER SEQUENCE OF EVENTS AND CORRECTING OLD
E RRO RS  ........................................................................................................ 940
III. TRACING THE LINEAGE-TEXTUAL AND CONCEPTUAL SIMILARITIES.948
A. Provisions that are Textually Identical, or Nearly Identical, in All
Three Drafts: Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware ................................. 949
1. Compact Theory of Government ............................................... 950
2. Government Instituted for Common Benefit or the Good of
the  W hole  ............................................... ...................................... 95 1
3. ... trustees and servants. . . ............ 952
4. Right to Reform, Alter, or Abolish Government ................... 953
5. Free and  Frequent Elections .................................................. 955
6. Prohibiting the Suspending of Laws ..................................... 957
7. Prohibiting Retrospective Laws ............................................ 958
8. Rights of Criminally Accused ...................... 960
9. Prohibiting Excessive Bail and Cruel and/or Unusual
Punishm  ent. .................................................................................. 968
10. Prohibiting  General W arrants .................................................. 969
11. Preserving Freedom of the Press ......................................... 970
12.  Governing  the  M ilitia  .............................................................. 972
*   Attorney, Saul Ewing LLP in Baltimore, Maryland. Lecturer and Adjunct Faculty
Member, University of Maryland School of Law. B.A., University of Maryland (1988); J.D.,
University of Maryland School of Law (1994). Many thanks to Richard C. Boldt, Roger S.
Friedman, Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse, Synthia J. Shilling, John Parker Sweeney, Robert F.
Williams, and Thurman W. Zollicoffer, Jr.
For Laure, Sam, Eli, and Jonah.

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