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53 R.J.T. n.s. 33 (2019)
Rethinking the Essential Facilities Doctrine for the EU Digital Economy

handle is hein.journals/revjurns53 and id is 39 raw text is: 

Rethinking the Essential

      Facilities Doctrine for

 the EU Digital Economy

                                   Inge GRAEF*

        Reviser la th~orie des facilit~s essentielles dans
                   l'conomie numnrique europ~enne

           Reconsiderar la doctrina de las instalaciones
              esenciales en la economia digital europea

        Repensar a teoria das infraestruturas essenciais
                        para a economia digital da EU


    La th~orie des (< facilit~s >) ou infra-
structures essentielles constitue une part
importante de la loi sur la concurrence
de l'Union europenne. Bien que peu uti-
lisle rcemment dans le cadre du con-
tr6le de la concurrence, cette doctrine est
rdguli~rement cit~e dans les discussions
politiques de 'UE comme un moyen d'ou-
vrir des marches pour lesquels les « g~ants
de la technologie agissent comme gar-
diens des entreprises et des consomma-
teurs. L'conomie num~rique n'6tant pas
aliment~e par les infrastructures physi-
ques A l'origine de la doctrine des facilit~s
essentielles, telles que les ponts de l'affaire

    The essential facilities doctrine forms
an important part of EU competition law.
Although it has not been used recently in
EU competition enforcement, the doc-
trine is regularly referred to in EU policy
discussions as a tool to open up markets
in which 'tech giants' act as gatekeepers to
businesses and consumers. Considering
that the digital economy is not driven by
physical infrastructures, such as the bridges
in the US Terminal Railroad case from
which the essential facilities doctrine ori-
ginates, other assets like data or rankings
- considered as the backbone of many
digital markets - may become the subject

* Assistant professor at Tilburg University, affiliated to the Tilburg Institute for Law, Tech-
   nology, and Society (TILT) and the Tilburg Law and Economics Center (TILEC).


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