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28 Pub. Land & Resources L. Rev. 41 (2007)
Ethnic Cleansing and America's Creation of National Parks

handle is hein.journals/publan28 and id is 43 raw text is: Ethnic Cleansing and America's Creation of National Parks
Isaac Kantor'
I.  INTRO DU CTION  ........................................................................................ 42
A.   A Personal Perspective in a Created Landscape .................... 42
B.   The Unpeopled Fallacy of the National Park Service Organic
Act of 1916 and the Wilderness Act of 1964 .......................... 43
C.   George Catlin's Original National Park Featured Native
A m ericans ................................................................................  44
D.    The Great Shift to John Muir's Uninhabited Wilderness. ...... 46
E.    Why Muir's Vision Prevailed ................................................. 48
II. REMOVING AMERICAN INDIANS FROM THE NATIONAL PARKS ............. 49
A.    Yellowstone National Park ...................................................... 49
B.   Glacier National Park ............................................................  51
C.   Mesa Verde National Park ..................................................... 53
III. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES .................................................................. 54
A .  Glacier National Park ............................................................  55
B.   Mesa Verde National Park ..................................................... 57
C.   Federal Statutes: A Tacit Admission of Guilt .......................... 58
IV. A CONTRAST: THE ALASKA NATIONAL INTEREST LANDS
CONSERVATION ACT OF 1980 ......................................................... 60
V .  C ON CLU SION  ......................................................................................... 62
Once we were in our own country and we were seldom
hungry, for then the two-leggeds and the four-leggeds lived
together like relatives ... [b]ut the [Americans] came, and
they have made little islands for us and other little islands
for the four-leggeds, and always these islands are becom-
ing smaller ....
-Black Elk 2
1. J.D. expected May 2007 University of Montana School of Law, Missoula, Montana. I would
like to thank Professor Raymond Cross for his guidance and encouragement as I wrote this article. I
also thank my wife, Rachel, for her support and understanding throughout law school. I dedicate this
article to my children, Gabriel and Mayana.
2. John G. Neihardt, Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux 9
(University of Nebraska Press 1988).

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