84 Police J. 13 (2011)
Making Sense of the Relationship between Trafficking in Persons, Human Smuggling, and Organised Crime: The Case of Nigeria

handle is hein.journals/policejl84 and id is 15 raw text is: TOM ELLIS
Principal Lecturer, Institute of Criminal Justice Studies,
University of Portsmouth
JAMES AKPALA
Former Masters student, Institute of Criminal Justice Studies,
University of Portsmouth
MAKING SENSE OF THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS,
HUMAN SMUGGLING, AND
ORGANISED CRIME: THE CASE
OF NIGERIA
Trade in human beings, and Nigeria's role in it, is a contested
area. This article first sets out to provide an integrated picture,
from the varied academic and policy output, of human traffick-
ing and smuggling, focused on a market picture that is able to
incorporate both genders and diverse forms of exploitation,
i.e., forced labour, prostitution and domestic servitude. It then
outlines how organised crime operates under this model in the
specific Nigerian context. Finally, the article reports the main
results of a small exploratory study carried out with Nigerian
law enforcement officers who work on the front line in tackling
trafficking and smuggling.
Keywords: human smuggling; human trafficking; law
enforcement; Nigeria; organised crime
Introduction
Trafficking in persons has become more widespread and com-
plex since the end of the Cold War (Truong & Angeles, 2005: 1),
forming what Morrison and Crosland (2000: 5) described as the
'dark side of globalisation', with a disproportionate impact on
third world countries ( Parent & Bruckert, 2002: 4). International
Labour Organisation (ILO) estimates suggest that global profits
from trafficking in persons were around $31.6 billion annually
(United Nations Office on Drug and Crime (UNDOC), 2008: 96)
and the United Nations' estimates show the profit from trading in
human beings ranks among the top three revenue sources for
The Police Journal, Volume 84 (2011)                    13

DOI: 10.1358/pojo.2011.84.1.507

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