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159 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1533 (2010-2011)
The NIQAB in the Courtroom: Protecting Free Exercise of Religion in a Post-Smith World

handle is hein.journals/pnlr159 and id is 1543 raw text is: COMMENT
THE NIQAB IN THE COURTROOM: PROTECTING
FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION
IN A POST-SMITH WORLD
ADAM SCHWARTZBAUMt
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................1534
I.    CULTURE OR RELIGION? WHY MUHAMMAD'S DECISION TO
WEAR THE NIQAB IS RELIGIOUS....................................................1536
A. African American Islamic Beliefs and Practices in Context ....1536
B. Muslim Women and the Veil................................................1538
C. What Constitutes a Religious Belief.....................................1541
II.   FREE  EXERCISE    TODAY.................................................................1543
A. Setting the Stage..................................................................1544
B. Variance Among the Circuits ...............................................1546
III. APPLYING THE HYBRID-RIGHTS THEORY ......................................1554
A. Invoking the Hybrid-Rights Exception ..................................1554
B. Alternative Means of Arriving at Strict Scrutiny:
The Sherbert Exception......................................................1558
IV. THE CASE FOR THE NIQAB AND THE STATE'S INTEREST IN
REMOVING THE VEIL ....................................................................1561
A. Accurate Identification and Safety........................................1565
B. Demeanor Evidence and Credibility Assessment.....................1567
C. The Confrontation Clause ...................................................1573
CONCLUSION........................................................................................1575

(1533)

t J.D. Candidate, 2011, University of Pennsylvania Law School. The author thanks
Sarah Barringer Gordon, Anita Allen, and Seth Kreimer for their assistance in develop-
ing and writing this Comment; Albert Lichy for providing the initial spark for the idea;
the University of Pennsylvania Law Review for its support; and his parents.

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