159 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1533 (2010-2011)
The NIQAB in the Courtroom: Protecting Free Exercise of Religion in a Post-Smith World

handle is hein.journals/pnlr159 and id is 1543 raw text is: COMMENT
THE NIQAB IN THE COURTROOM: PROTECTING
FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION
IN A POST-SMITHWORLD
ADAM SCHWARTZBAUMt
INTRODUCTION                       ..............................................1534
1.   CULTURE OR RELIGION? WHY MUHAMMAD'S DECISION TO
WEAR THE NIQAB IS RELIGIOUS.........................1536
A. African American Islamic Beliefs and Practices in Context ....1536
B. Muslim Women and the Veil...............  ............1538
C. What Constitutes a Religious Belief............ ......1541
II. FREE EXERCISE TODAY...................................1543
A. Setting the Stage................................1544
B. Variance Among the Circuits.. .............................1546
III. APPLYING THE HYBRID-RIGHTS THEORY     .....................1554
A. Invoking the Hybrid-Rights Exception  .................1554
B. Alternative Means ofArriving at Strict Scrutiny:
The Sherbert Exception...................    ........1558
IV. THE CASE FOR THE NIQAB AND THE STATE'S INTEREST IN
REMOVING THE VEIL     .........................................1561
A. Accurate Identification and Safety....................1565
B. Demeanor Evidence and Credibility Assessment.....................1567
C. The Confrontation Clause...    ......................1573
CONCLUSION.         ........................................... .....1575

(1533)

t J.D. Candidate, 2011, University of Pennsylvania Law School. The author thanks
Sarah Barringer Gordon, Anita Allen, and Seth Kreimer for their assistance in develop-
ing and writing this Comment; Albert Lichy for providing the initial spark for the idea;
the University ofPennsylvania Law Review for its support; and his parents.

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