52 Okla. L. Rev. 197 (1999)
The President as His Own Judge and Jury: A Legal Analysis of the Presidential Self-Pardon Power

handle is hein.journals/oklrv52 and id is 207 raw text is: THE PRESIDENT AS HIS OWN JUDGE AND JURY:
A LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRESIDENTIAL
SELF-PARDON POWER
ROBERT NIDA* & REBECCA L. SPIRo**
Table of Contents
I. Introduction  ...........................................            197
II. Pardon Power History  ................................... 201
A. Pre-American Pardon Power History   ....................... 201
1. Ancient Athens and Rome ............................. 201
2. The Pardon Power Under the English Monarch ............... 203
B. United States Constitutional Pardon History  .................. 205
1. The Development of the Pardon Power in the Constitution ....... 205
2. Pardons from the Constitutional Convention to Secession ........ 207
3. Pardons from the Civil War through Reconstruction  ........... 209
4. Pardons During the Twentieth-Century ..................... 211
HI. History of Self-Pardon Consideration in the United States .......... 212
A. Richard Nixon and Watergate ............................ 212
B. George Bush and the Iran-Contra Affair ..................... 214
IV. Constitutional Interpretations Regarding Self-Pardons ............. 216
A. Textual Arguments .................................... 216
B. Original Intent Arguments ............................... 217
C. Structural Arguments .................................. 218
D. Precedent Arguments .................................. 220
V. Proposal  .............................................              221
VI. Conclusion  ..........................................              222
L Introduction
The President Shall... Have Power To Grant Reprieves and Pardons
for Offenses Against the United States, Except in Cases of Impeach-
ment.'
* Robert Nida is a California attorney who lives and works in Los Angeles and Washington, D.C.
LL.M., 1999, with highest honors, The George Washington University Law School; J.D., 1998, St.
Mary's University School of Law; B.A., 1993, San Diego State University. Both authors appreciate the
invaluable assistance of the following attorneys whose contributions were essential to this article: John
V. Berry, Michele S. Cobin, James B. Eaglin, and Laural L. Hooper. E-mail Robnida@juno.com.
** Rebecca L. Spiro, J.D: Candidate, Georgetown University Law Center, expected May 2000;
B.A., 1997, summa cum laude, The Catholic University of America.
1. U.S. CONST. art. II, § 2.

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