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52 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 1 (2019-2020)

handle is hein.journals/nyuilp52 and id is 1 raw text is: 









       ON   COERCION IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

                      MOHAMED S. HELAL*

    I.  INTRODUCTION.....................................       2             R
    11. TALES  OF COERCION................................ 10            R
        A.  The Russian  Interference in the 2016 U.S.
            Presidential Election ..........................   10        R
        B.  The 2017  North Korean  Nuclear Crisis ......... .24              R
        C.  The 2018  Murder  of Washington Post Columnist
           Jamal  Khashoggi   .........................37                     R
   III. THE  PROHIBITION   ON INTERVENTION AND THE
        CONCEPT   OF COERCION..........................        47             R
        A.  The Prohibition on Intervention in the Internal or
            External Affairs of States .................... 47                R
            1.  The Doctrinal and Political Origins of the
                Prohibition on Intervention ...............49                 R
            2.  The Sources, Scope, and Content of the
                Prohibition on Intervention ...............54                 R
        B.  Unlawful  Ends: Intervention in the Domaine
            R6serv6  of States...  .....................       65             R
        C.  Unlawful  Means:  Coercion as the Instrument of
            Intervention............................. 69                      R
            1.  The  Concept of Coercion.................      70             R
            2.  Defining Unlawful  Coercion ..............74                  R
                a.  The  Nature  of Coercion:  Occurrent
                    Coercion   and Dispositional
                    Coercion   ...........................     75             R
                b.  Measuring   Coercion:  The  Impact  of
                    Coercion   vs. The Legality of
                    Coercion   ........................ 76                    R

    * Assistant Professor of Law, Moritz College of Law & Affiliated Faculty,
Mershon Center for International Security Studies - The Ohio State Univer-
sity. I thank Steven Darnell and Andrea Hearon for excellent research assis-
tance, Matt Cooper of the Moritz College of Law Library for invaluable help
with sources used in this article, and the editors of the N.Y.U. Journal of
International Law & Politics for their outstanding work. For valuable feed-
back on previous drafts of this article, I acknowledge with much gratitude
Christiane Ahlborn, Cinnamon Carlarne, Ashley Deeks, Larissa van den
Herik, Sean Murphy, Tom Ruys, Lucca Ferro, Peter Tzeng, J. Benton Heath
and the participants in the 2019 Junior International Law Scholars Associa-
tion Workshop.

                                1


Imaged with Permission of N.Y.U. Journal of International Law and Politics

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