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32 N.Y.U. J. Int'l L. & Pol. 243 (1999-2000)
Time Present and Time Past: Globalization, International Financial Institutions, and the Third World

handle is hein.journals/nyuilp32 and id is 253 raw text is: TIME PRESENT AND TIME PAST: GLOBALIZATION,
INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS,
AND THE THIRD WORLD
ANTONY A.NGHm*
I. INTRODUCTION
I am very honored to have been invited by the New York
University Journal of International Law and Politics to contribute
to your Millennium Issue, although somewhat uncertain as
to how to respond to the many challenges posed by your ques-
tion. My work in the new millennium will basically continue
and extend the work I have engaged in for much of my legal
career. Like many other third world scholars on whose work I
have relied and to which I refer in this article, my work has
been animated by a concern which, crudely put, is to under-
stand how international law can be used by peoples in the
third world-a problematic, anachronistic term, but one I %ill
use nevertheless-to advance their own interests, to protect
themselves against an oppressive state, to improve their stan-
dards of living, and to make their voices heard in the interna-
tional arena.'
* Associate Professor of Law, University of Utah; SJ.D., Harvard Law
School, 1995; LL.B., Monash University, 1987; BA., Monash University,
1986. Many thanks to Karen Engle, James Gathii, Balakrishnan Rajagopal,
and Rhee Zha Hyoung, and my Third World Approaches to International
Law Colleagues. I would also like to thank Professor Martti Koskenniemi
andJan Klabbers of the Law Faculty, University of Helsinki, Finland, and Ms.
Kanongnj Sribuaiam and Dr. Sakda Thanitcul of the Law Faculty, Chu-
lalongkom University, Thailand, for giving me the opportunity to present
some of the ideas discussed in this article in their respective universities. As
always I am indebted to David Kennedy for his guidance and support over
many years. This work was supported by the Summer Stipend Program of
the College of Law, University of Utah. This article is respectfully dedicated,
with my gratitude and admiration, to my teacher, C.G. Weeramanty.
1. For important recent examinations of the use of this term in contem-
porary international relations, see Karin Mickelson, Rhetoric and Rage: Third
World Voices in International Legal Discourse, 16 Wis. INTr' LJ. 353 (1998);
Balakrishnan Rajagopal, Locating the Third World in Cudtural Geography, B.C.
THImR WoRLD LJ. (forthcoming 2000). In this essay I have used he terms
third world countries and developing countries interchangeably. &te also
Ministerial Declaration, Group of 77, 23rd Annual Ministerial Meeting (visited
243

Imaged with the Permission of N.Y.U. Journal of International Law and Politics

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